American and Mexican Revolution By Jarod Compton, Seth Cox, Zachary Decaire, Weston Thompson

Stage 1: Symptom Stage:

US: A major economic issue that the colonists faced that led up to the revolution was mercantilism. The system of mercantilism put all of the power in the host country. The colonies had to send much of what they farmed back to Britain and had little trade with other countries. The Seven Years War left Britain with a lot of debt. King George III imposed many tariffs on the colonists to pay the debt, which led to colonists getting very angry. Instead of ever trying to make a compromise or fix the issues, he punished the colonists which made the situation even worse. The many tariffs imposed by King George outraged the colonists, which caused various rebellious acts such as the Boston Tea Party, and the intolerable acts only made the frustration worse. The issues that the Americans had with the British government were real issues though they were not as severe as other nations with revolutions issues.

Mexico: Similarly to the US, colonists in Latin America wanted independence to get away from mercantilism. The creoles were the ones to voiced their discontent the most. Although there were no direct dictators, the Catholic Church, creoles, and the military ruled. The issues involving the dominance of the military and the Catholic church were important issues that needed to be addressed in one form or another.

Stage 2: Fever Stage

US: Boston Tea party happens, Americans dress as Indians board teas ships and throw all the tea into the harbor, making the biggest teapot ever. Boston harbor closed to pay for the tea., done so thought the Boston Port Act. Intolerable acts passed by parliament, British troops are able to quarter in American homes due to the Quartering act, and Massachusetts is forced to be under direct British control. Americans form the First Continental Congress to respond. British try to seize guns and prominent rebels in Concord, Paul Revere rides to warn the rebels. Shot heard round the world, British and American forces clash. At the second Continental Congress, the Americans declared independence by sending the Declaration of Independence to the British, and form a new Democratic country, the US of A. *Insert Caaawww* The intolerable acts was the final straw of the 13 Colonies, due to Americans wanting representation in parliament and were pushed to revolt due to having no say in the intolerable acts and British troops being garrisoned in the 13 Colonies.

Mexico: Hidalgo is shocked by the poverty in Mexico, and makes the “Cry of Dolores” speech. Mestizos and Mulattoes get fed up with being discriminated against in the social hierarchy and join Hidalgo. Hidalgo raises an army of 90,000 peasants and farmers. Hidalgo and Co. get captured in the Battle of Calderón Bridge and Hidalgo is executed, Hidalgo becomes martyr to the people. Other rebels continue the fight to secure independence and fight the Royalist and Spanish forces. Spain takes on a liberal government in 1820 and try to appease the rebels. Conservative Royalists call for independence from the liberal Spanish Government, Royalists join war of independence in order to keep their position in Mexican society. Rebels come together to fight the Liberal Spanish. Rebels form closer ties to the catholic church. Pro-Spanish forces get defeated. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O’Donojú signs the Treaty of Córdoba, making Mexico an independent constitutional Monarchy. Iturbide forced to become the Emprah by the conservatives. Mestizos and Indians flocked toward the revolution in order to gain more rights and representation. Royalists and Conservatives wanted to get rid of the liberal Spanish government, and so pushed for Independence.

Stage 3: Terror Stage

US:Traditional tar and feathering of British Tax officials and Soldiers. Boston Massacre, soldier gets clubbed, they all fire into the crowd. 5 died total, 6 more were injured. Lexington and Concord, the British march to seize the arsenal “Shot heard around the world” British start the war. The Quartering act which allowed soldiers to invade and live in your homes was passed. In response to the intolerable and Boston Port act the Sons of Liberty around burning records and looting homes of the English. The Gaspee Affair occurs in which patriots burned British warships in response to trade regulations. For government after independence, The Articles of Confederation was written in 1777 and was ratified in all states by 1781, however the Articles of Confederation was not powerful enough to maintain control. For 10 years control was only maintained by George Washington and the military. Many small protest occurred such as Shay’s Rebellion and Whiskey rebellion in early years. The violence and terror committed by the people was enough attention from whatever government was in charge and helped shaped the Americans ideas of what they wanted their future government to be like. However compared to the French Revolution most attacks such as the ones listed above were less radical and drastic .

Mexico: Hidalgo leads a rebellion to take over cities west of Mexico City, almost succeeds but then is executed. Jose Morelos, the sucessor to Hidalgo tries again but fails. The revolution gets picked up by Vicente Guerrero, who’s important later. After the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba, Mexico is “technically” free from Spanish rule. Mexico was running out of money, due to most nations cutting economic ties with it and refusing to recognize it as an independent country. Iturbide makes things worse with internal damage by cutting colonial-era taxes, and pissing off the elites with a 40% tax. Army soon went unpaid, criticism began to grow strong, and Iturbide started censoring the press. Many military leaders get upset, most notable being Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who marched an army to Mexico City, and had a decisive victory against Iturbide. Fall of previous imperialistic government. Mexico gains a more republic-styled government, Santa Anna would become president a few years later, and Mexico gets distracted by Texas not long after. Many of the violent protests, wars, and coups didn't help that much as it wasted time and funding for a government that was just going to overthrown the next day. However all these pushes for reforms and changes were not a waste completely due to the fact it gave Benito Juarez the ideas needed to set up a better government for the next couple of decades.

Stage 4: Convalescence

US: In order to better stabilize the government the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Right were created to protect the peoples rights and liberties. George Washington was elected as president and leader of the United States. Washington was a capable leader and the Constitution fixed many issues that people had during the British rule. America though meets many of the requirements of the revolution model does not follow these requirements chronologically and many of their issues were not as extreme as those in other revolutions. The American Revolution though revolutionary, does not follow the cookie cutter method of revolutions of its time.

Mexico: Benito Juarez started La Reforma which limited the power of the Catholic Church and the military. Though France booted Juarez out for a bit Juarez returned and was president till his death. This lead Mexico to a period of the stability economically and politically . Mexico went through all the chaos and coups that come with revolutions and follows the model of a revolution fairly well. Overall Mexico fits the mold as a stereotypical revolution for it time.

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