Chemistry and the Periodic table By: Billie-Kate pope/core 1

PERIODIC TABLE

Metals Non-metals and Metalloids

  • Metals are durable, shiny and can conduct electricity and heat
  • Non-metals are not good conductors of heat, not durable, and can be different colors
  • Metalloids are a mixture of both non-metals and metals they can be durable and they can conduct electricity but not always

Protons,Electrons, and Neutrons

  • Protons-in the center of the nucleus of an atom/they have a positive charge
  • Neutrons-in the center of the nucleus of an atom/they have no charge at all
  • Electrons- On the outside of the nucleus in the electron cloudof an atom/they have a negative charge

Who was the father of the periodic table?

The father of the periodic table was Dmitri Mendeleev he formulated the far side version of the periodic table and was recommended to the Swedish Academy to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1906 to Mendeleev for his discovery of the periodic system.

Reactivity of the elements on the periodic table

  • Most reactive elements are on the left and gradually get less reactive going to the right (cesium, francium, rubidium, Barium,strontium)
  • Least reactive are on the right and get more reactive going to the left(noble gases, neon, platinum)

Groups and periods

  • there are 18 groups and 7 periods of the periodic table
  • Alkali metals
  • 2 Alakine earth metals
  • 8/9/10 Platinum Group Metals
  • 11 Coinage Metals
  • 15 Pnictogens
  • 16 Chalcogens
  • 17 Halogens
  • 18 Noble Gases, Inert Gases

Atomic Number, Atomic mass, Mass number

  • The periodic table is an arrangement of chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron shell model, and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number. The numbers above the periodic table are the group numbers.
  • Atomic number equals the number of protons
  • And the atomic mass is the total mass of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a given element, commonly expressed in unified atomic mass units
  • You know the number of electrons by looking at the number of protons

Atoms

  • Valence electrons are electrons that are associated with an atom, and can participate in the formation of a chemical bond.
  • 2,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8..........etc. is the rule for drawing an atom
  • The first shell is filled with 2 electrons, the second is filled with 8 electrons, and the third is filled with 8. You can see that sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) have a couple of extra electrons. They, like all atoms, want to be happy.
The red light is like the nucleus and includes the protons and neutrons. The purple and green lights are like the electrons which are usually in the electron cloud and are way smaller then the protons

Balancing Equations

  • in a chemical equation elements have to be the same
  • The '+' is read as 'reacts with' and the arrow '' means 'produces'. The chemical formulas on the left represent the starting substances, called reactants. The substances produced by the reaction are shown on the right, and are called products.
  • the arrow in the equation is the yield and is representing
  • Example: The hydrogen (H) atoms are now balanced. Due to the coefficient 2 in front of H2O, there are a total of 4 oxygen (O) atoms on the products side. To balance the oxygen atoms on both sides, we put a coefficient of 2 in front of O2. The chemical equation is now balanced.

Chemical and Psysical Properties and Changes

  • Psyical properties- a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
  • Examples of Physical Properties-Transparency, ductility, density, elasticity, brittleness, boiling point, melting point
  • Chemical Properties-A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
  • Examples of Physical Properties-Transparency, ductility, density, elasticity, brittleness, boiling point, melting point
  • Psysical change in a substance doesn't change what the substance is
  • In a chemical change where there is a chemical reaction, a new substance is formed and energy is either given off or absorbed
  • 5 signs of chemical change- color, bubbles, color change, odor change, temperature change

Credits:

Created with images by FontShop - "Periodic Table of Font Elements 1.1" • James St. John - "Gold (Last Chance Mine, Libby Creek, Lincoln County, Montana, USA)" • James St. John - "Gold in iron oxide (Highland Mining District, Silver Bow County, Montana, USA)" • kevin dooley - "Atom" • sergey245x - "D.I. Mendeleyev" • dullhunk - "An Astronomer's View of the Periodic Table" • alexlomas - "Periodic table of OS Admin" • Science Activism - "097 Berkelium - Periodic Table of Elements" • ri1987 - "air atomium atomic" • Dun.can - "City Lights #1" • Harald_Landsrath - "old scale horizontal weigh" • domeckopol - "still life bottles color"

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