Advertising BY: Alicia sum

  • Notes on video (Sell & Spin, a history of advertising):
  • Originated from the word Advertisen (to notify).
  • The average person in the USA sees around 3,000 ads a day.
  • Go to sleep then you'll see no ads.
  • Nothing is more powerful that advertising.
  • Marlboro (cigarette )was originally meant for women.
  • Sales weren't that good, so after nearly 3 decades they changed the packaging and aimed the product at men.
  • The words "Coca Cola" are the second most recognised word after the word "OK".
  • Leo Burnett created Marlboro.
  • The Marlboro man went national in 1955. As a result in branding sales went up in 3,000%.
  • The right advertising can make the product very successful.
  • "It's the product that matters, and sometimes the product misses the market."
  • No matter how much money you throw in the advertising, and the product has flaws, it will make it fail.
  • You can find old ads from a long long time ago on the walls in Pompeii.
  • In Ancient Greece they had criers (people calling out these messages) to advertise their products. They would use words and music and sometimes even scrolls with words (messages on).
  • The barber pole signifies the barber shop.
  • The Gutenberg printing press was very useful.
  • They posted ads on wall.
  • The printing press enabled mass technology.

Rosser Reeves:

  • Simplistic, repetitious boasts= "the hard sell "
  • Direct and student= repetitive
  • "Imitate your way into people's consciousness"
  • Unique selling proposition (use) = reason why
  • Highlighting how product was different from others on market.
  • Repetition of the USP. = association
  • (Driven by companies financial people)

Bill Bernbach:

  • More sophisticated audience = more sophisticated advertising
  • Recognises audience has a brain
  • Blending creativity and art with marketing and commerce
  • Broke wall between viewer of ad and product advertised
  • (Driven by creatives)

Notes on video: (Jean Kilbourne Killing us softly 4)

Women Rep Test:

Each question is worth one mark

The main character is a female : yes

The film/ tv series is about something other than a man : yes

No hate between the women : yes

The women in the movie have different body shapes ( 2 marks) : no

The film has at least 2 women in it : no

The women and men are treated equally : no

The characters in the film are women of color : no

At least 3 women have a speaking role : no

At least 1 women that is over the age of 40 : no

The film is written/directed by a women : no

Total: 3/11 (D)

  • Male representation in Advertising:
  • Rise of male glamour model
  • Objectification
  • Construction of ideal male body
  • Focus on abs, pecs + crotch
  • Male gaze and female gaze

5 things I learned about male representation in Advertising:

1. The main focus is on the abs, pecs and crotch (body)

2. Breadwinner

3. youth

Abercrombie & Fitch advert:

Gender representation: The main focus is the man and his abs. He is very muscular and he is also topless.

Ethnicity: The man in the photograph is white (American) and his hair is blonde.

National Identity: He is American, because there is an American flag waving in the background.

Youth: The man in the photograph looks really young.

PALETTE - What sort of range of colours is used? Light, dark, bright, subdued, autumnal, bold, pastel? What word describes it best? The photograph is black and white.

VISUAL HIERARCHY - What is the most important visual element in the composition? What else is important? The most important visual element in the photograph is the man's abs and his body.

SHOT - What type of camera shot is used? What angle (high level, low level, eye level?) What distance (ECU, CU, MS, LS, ELS?): Low level

TYPOGRAPHY - What typefaces or fonts are used? Serif, sans-serif, handwriting fonts?

COMPOSITION - Vertical, horizontal, z-shaped, spiral?

EDITING - Has the image been heavily edited?

LAYOUT AND DESIGN - Text / image ratio? Is the layout clean or busy?

What is the effect of the colour scheme? What CONNOTATIONS do these colours have? Who will they (stereotypically) appeal to?

Why are certain visual elements emphasised? What sort of audience appeal is being used?

Why was this particular shot used? What is the usual meaning conveyed by this particular shot?

What does the typeface suggest? What is it meant to look like? What does that suggest about the line of appeal of this ad?

Why was this particular composition used?

Is the image edited? How and why?

Why has this particular design style been used?

Summarising the video "the lab: decoy- a portrait session with a twist."

The video is starring 6 different photographers and 1 guy. The 6 different photographers are each told something different about the guy and capture different photographs of him.

In advertising, people don't like to advertise LGBT people and disabled people because they're not perfect and it's better for "perfect" people with no flaws to be in advertisements. However, it's impossible for you to be like the person in the advertisement because the advertisement has obviously been photoshopped. Also, some brands prefer white people rather that black people. According to the article, a new "ad age" has arrived. "It's about same-sex couples, children with every kind of disability, multi-racial families and veterans too". This is better, because everyone is respected. People are impressed about this "new ad age" but they are also wondering why it took so long for it to happen.

Advertising and censorship

What are these advertising? Maltesers (chocolate brand) and cigarettes.

What claims are being made for the products? Both ads are trying to say that chocolate and cigarettes are good for you. The first ad is trying to say that Maltesers are fun to eat and they make you slim. Men will " supposedly like you more "The second ad is saying that smoking cigarettes are good for your health and it makes your throat better.

What image are they portraying? The first ad is trying to say that maltesers are "good for you" and they are really fun to eat. The second ad is trying to say that cigarettes are also "good for you". However, both are not good for you on a daily basis.

Could companies make the same claims for these products today? Why? Why not? No. Smoking cigarettes are really bad for your health and you can die from smoking. It makes your lungs unhealthy, making you unable to breathe. Eating too much chocolate is bad for your health.

Advertising Regulation Task

Who are the people who are most vulnerable to advertising? Children and people with illnesses.

Which adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Drugs, because if you take too much it will harm you very badly.

In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)? There should be some restriction.


1. No words/text that offend anyone.

2. Not racist or sexist.

3. No inappropriate content in front of children.

4. No airbrushing.

5. Do not objectify women.

6. The product being advertised should not be exaggerated in any way.

7. The ad should not mislead anyone.

8. If the product has is any harm to audience the company of the ad should beheld responsible.

9. The ad should not lie.

10. The product advertised should be of good quality, just like the advert said.

The controversial Benetton ads ( wouldn't pass my set of regulations because in the first photo one ad there was this woman breastfeeding her baby. There was nudity, the mother was black and her baby was mixed race. Benetton is a clothing company, and it's not related to the clothes whatsoever because there are no clothes in the ad. The second photo featured a man dying on a bed and his family was weeping by his side. Some people don't like seeing people dying because it makes them uncomfortable. It shocks them. Also, some people are very sensitive. In the third photo, there is an albino woman walking amongst black people, who are all staring at her. The woman stands out in the crowd. In this photo, the white woman is the minority. The black people are the majority. It's this mixture of both races, and some people are racist. The fourth photo is a photo of a real soldier's clothes. Blood is stained all over the shirt and pants. This is an uncomfortable image because some people don't like blood and dislike war. It pains people to see other people in pain. Some people are also scared of war and are sad that the soldiers sacrificed themselves to save others.

In the UK advertisements are monitored and managed by the Advertising Standards Authority. Their aim and goal is to make every advertisement in the UK Legal, decent, honest and truthful.

Exploring the work of the ASA

2015'S most complained about ads:

1. Ltd: This ad had 1,513 complaints. People complained that the ad was offensive, the content was overly sexual and the ad was distasteful. It was not upheld because the ASA did not think that the ad was offensive and in breach of the Code.

2. Paypal (UK) Ltd: This ad had 464 complaints. People complained that the ad revealed the truth about Father Christmas. However, the ad was not upheld by the ASA, so Paypal changed the scheduling of the commercial.

3. Omega Pharma Ltd: This ad received 136 complaints. People complained for many reasons. Some reasons were because the ad promoted an unhealthy body image against young girls and the ad is targeted to girls over 18 years old, but the ad used girls under the age over 18, which just doesn't make sense at all. This ad was upheld. The ASA banned the ad because "it presented an irresponsible approach to body image and confidence".

Should advertisers have the freedom to say whatever they want?

Advertising is a big part of our lives. You can’t escape advertising. In the 1970s, people were exposed to 500-2,000 ads a day. Now, the average person sees around 5,000 ads a day, which is a lot. Some ads we see are appropriate (meaning that there are no inappropriate content and it doesn’t offend anyone). However, some ads just aren’t that good and don’t make sense. Some ads offend people. Some ads are racist or sexist. Some ads objectify people (mostly women). The worst thing is when some ads lie to you or mislead you. Sometimes the product advertised has no connection to the advert whatsoever.

I think that advertisers should have the freedom to say whatever they want, but there should be limits. Limits like the ad can’t be offensive. If the ad has inappropriate content, it should not be shown on a children’s television channel during advertisement time, because children (and people with illnesses) are the most vulnerable to advertising. For example, if there is an ad for swimsuits and it features a model with a “perfect body”, which is obviously photoshopped and a young girl who isn’t that confident with her body watches it, she will feel like she needs to get that “perfect body”. However, that “perfect body” isn’t real, because it’s photoshopped, and no one can ever look like that because it’s impossible. Of course, those ads that push past those limits get complaints, like “the ad was overly sexual” and “the ad was offensive and it encourage bad language!”.

I think that advertisers have the right to advertise their product, but they must do it appropriately, so there are very little complaints or even better, no complaints at all.

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