Chapter 15 Bethany thompsoN

Section 1 Postwar Uncertainty

A New Revolution in Science

- Ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an impact on the 20th century.

- Einstein and Freud were part of a scientific revolution that was important.

  • Impact of Einstein's Theory of Relativity

- Albert Einstein was German-born physicist.

-He offered new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter.

-Other scientists had discovered that light travels at exactly the same speed no matter the direction.

-Albert theorized in 1905, that while the speed of light is constant, things like space and time are not.

-Space and time can change when measured to an object moving near the speed of light, this theory is called theory of relativity.

-Uncertainty and relativity replaced Isaac Newton's belief of a world operating according to absolute laws of motion and gravity.

  • Influence of Freudian Psychology

- Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician.

- Sigmund treated his patients with psychological problems because of this he came up with a theory about the human mind.

-He believed most of our brain is irrational, or beyond reason.

-The irrational part of the brain is the unconscious it said to consist of drives, like the pleasure- seeking drive.

-By 1920s, Freud's theories had become widespread.

Literature in the 1920s

-World War I caused philosophers and writers to question accepted ideas about reason and progress.

-Many people started to fear the future and doubted religious beliefs.

-Writers and thinkers started creating disturbing visions of the present and future.

-T.S. Eliot an American poet wrote the Western Society had lost its spiritual values in 1922.

-Eliot described the postwar word as a barren "wasteland" drained of hope and faith.

-In 1921, William Butler Yeast an Irish poet conveyed a sense of dark times ahead in the poem "The Second Coming".

  • Writers Reflect Society's Concerns

-Horror of war made a deep impression on many writers.

-Franz Kafka a Czech-born author wrote cric novels such as The Trial and The Castle.

-The books feature people caught in threatening situations.

-The books struck a chord among the readers.

-Irish-born author James Joyce gained worldwide attention with his novel Ulysses.

-Ulysses focus on a single day in the lives of three people in Ireland.

  • Thinkers React to Uncertainties

-In search of meaning in an uncertain world, some thinkers turned to the philosophy known as existenialism.

-Jean Paul Sarte of France was a major leader in this movement.

-These people believed that there is no universal meaning to life.

-Also each person creates their own meaning life.

-Existentialists were influenced by a German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

-Nietzsche wrote in 1880, that Western ideas such as reason, democracy, and progress had stifled people's creativity and actions.

-Also he urged a return to the ancient heroic values of pride, assertiveness, and strength.

-His ideas attracted attention in the 20th century and had a great impact on Italy and Germany in the 1920s and 1930s.

Revolution In the Arts

- New directions in the painting and music began in the postwar period, they evolved after the war.

  • Artists Rebel Against Tradition

-Artists rebelled against realistic style of painting.

-Instead, they wanted to show the inner world of emotion and imagination.

-Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky used bright colors and distorted or exaggerated forms.

-Georges Braque of France and Pablo Picasso of Spain, were inspired by traditional African art, so they founded Cubism in 1907.

-Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms.

-objects were broken down into different parts.

-Surrealism, an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams with real life, was inspired by Freud’s ideas.

-Surreal means “beyond or above reality.”

-Most of their paintings have an eerie, dreamlike quality and depict objects in unrealistic ways.

  • Composers Try New Styles

-Both classical and popular music, composers moved away from traditional styles.

-The Rite of Spring, the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky used irregular rhythms and dissonances, or harsh combinations of sound.

-Jazz emerged in the United States.

-Jazz was developed by musicians, mainly African Americans, in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago.

-Jazz was lively and loose.

Society Challenges Convention

-Scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments during World War I.

-The war’s technological advances were put to use to improve transportation and communication after the war.

  • The Automobile Alters Society

-Automobile benefited from a host of wartime innovations and improvements—electric starters, air-filled tires, and more powerful engines.

-Cars became sleek and brightly polished, complete with headlights and chrome-plated bumpers.

-Autos were owned exclusively by the rich.

-Factories produced 34,000 autos in 1913.

-Prices dropped, and the middle class could afford cars, after the war.

-By 1937, they were producing 511,000 autos a year.

-Auto use by the average family led to lifestyle changes.

-People traveled for pleasure.

-New businesses opened to serve the mobile tourist.

-Auto also affected where people lived and worked.

-People moved to suburbs and commuted to work in the cities.

  • Airplanes Transform Trave

-International air travel became an objective after the war.

-Two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland, in 1919.

-In 1927, an American pilot named Charles Lindbergh captured world attention with a 33-hour solo flight from New York to Paris.

-Passenger airlines were established during the 1920s.

-First only the rich were able to afford air travel.

-Amelia Earhart was an American who, in 1932, became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.

  • Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment

-Guglielmo Marconi conducted his first successful experiments with radio in 1895.

-The real push for radio development came during World War I.

-In 1920, the world’s first commercial radio station—KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania—began broadcasting.

-Radio mania swept the United States.

-Major cities had stations broadcasting news, plays, and even live sporting events. Soon most families owned a radio.

-Motion pictures were also a major industry in the 1920s.

-Countries from Cuba to Japan, produced movies.

-Film was a serious art form in Europe.

-In the Hollywood district of Los Angeles, where 90 percent of all films were made, movies were entertainment.

-The king of Hollywood’s silent screen was the English-born Charlie Chaplin, a comic genius.

-In the late 1920s, the addition of sound transformed movies.

-Advances in transportation and communication that followed the war had brought the world in closer touch.

-Global prosperity came to depend on the economic well-being of all major nations.

A Worldwide Depression

  • Postwar Europe

-Cost of World War I was immense.

-The Great War left every major European country nearly bankrupt.

-Europe’s domination in world affairs declined after the war.

  • Unstable New Democracies

-From 1914 to 1918, Europe’s last absolute rulers had been overthrown.

-The first of the new governments was formed in Russia in 1917.

-The Provisional Government, as it was called, hoped to establish constitutional and democratic rule

-Within months it had fallen to a Communist dictatorship.

-Many citizens of the new democracies had little experience with representative government.

-In France and Italy, whose parliaments had existed before World War I, the large number of political parties made effective government difficult.

-Countries had a dozen or more political groups.

-It was almost impossible for one party to win enough support to govern effectively.

-When no single party won a majority, a coalition government, or temporary alliance of several parties, was needed to form a parliamentary majority.

-The parties disagreed on so many policies, coalitions seldom lasted very long.

-Changes in government made it hard for democratic countries to develop strong leadership and move toward long-term goals.

-Weaknesses of a coalition government became a major problem in times of crisis.

-Voters in several countries were then willing to sacrifice democratic government for strong, authoritarian leadership.

The Weimar Republic

-Germany’s new democratic government was set up in 1919.

-Weimar Republic, it was named after the city where the national assembly met, it had serious weaknesses from the start.

-Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition.

  • Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany

-Germany also faced enormous economic problems that had begun during the war.

-Germany had not greatly increased its wartime taxes instead they printed money.

-After Germany’s defeat, this paper money steadily lost its value.

-Germany printed even more money to pay the Allies.

-Germany’s currency fell sharply and because of this Germans needed more and more money to buy even the most basic goods.

-People took wheelbarrows full of money to buy food.

  • Attempts at Economic Stability

-Germany recovered from the 1923 inflation thanks largely to the work of an international committee.

-The committee was headed by Charles Dawes, an American banker, who created the Dawes Plan, which provided for a $200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German currency and strengthen its economy.

-The Dawes Plan set a more realistic schedule for Germany’s reparations payments.

-Put into effect in 1924, the Dawes Plan helped slow inflation, as a result German economy began to recover, it attracted more loans and investments from the United States.

-By 1929, German factories were producing as much as they had before the war.

  • Efforts at a Lasting Peace

-Germany’s foreign minister, Gustav Stresemann, and France’s foreign minister, Aristide Briand, tried to improve relations between their countries. In 1925, the two ministers met in Locarno, Switzerland, with officials from Belgium, Italy, and Britain.

-They signed a treaty promising that they would never again make war against each other.

-Also Germany agreed to respect France and Belgium's borders.

-Soon it was admitted to the League of Nations.

-In 1928, the hopes raised by the “spirit of Locarno” led to the Kellogg-Briand peace pact.

-Almost every country in the world, including the Soviet Union, signed, they pledged “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.”

Financial Collapse

-In the late 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy, but in 1929 it weakened.

  • A Flawed U.S. Economy

-Several weaknesses in the U.S. economy caused serious problems; these included uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction by business and agriculture, and the fact that many Americans were buying less.

-By 1929, American factories were turning out nearly half of the world’s industrial goods, the rising productivity led to enormous profits.

-However, this new wealth was not evenly distributed.

-The richest 5 percent of the population received 33 percent of all personal income in 1929, yet 60 percent of all American families earned less than $2,000 a year.

-Most families were too poor to buy the goods being produced, because of this store owners were unable to sell their goods, they had to eventually cut back their orders from factories.

-Factories in turn reduced production and laid off workers, which led to a downward economic spiral began.

As more workers lost their jobs, families bought even fewer goods, in turn, factories made further cuts in production and laid off more workers

-During the 1920s, overproduction affected American farmers as well, scientific farming methods and new farm machinery had dramatically increased crop yields.

-American farmers were producing more food, but they faced new competition from farmers in Australia, Latin America, and Europe.

-As a result, a worldwide surplus of agricultural products drove prices and profits down.

-Unable to sell their crops at a profit, many farmers could not pay off the bank loans that kept them in business because of this unpaid debts weakened banks and forced some to close.

-The danger signs of overproduction by factories and farms should have warned people against gambling on the stock market but no one heeded the warning.

  • The Stock Market Crashes

-New York City’s Wall Street was the financial capital of the world in 1929.

-At Wall Street’s New York Stock Exchange, optimism about the booming U.S. economy showed in soaring prices for stocks.

-To get in on the boom, many middle-income people began buying stocks on margin, this means that they had to make payments down.

-This system worked until the prices went down.

-In September 1929, the stocks were unnaturally high and investors thought that the market would start going down.

-By October 24, the slow fall of the stocks went to an all-out slide downward.

-Because of this Thursday people started trying to sell there stocks but nobody wanted to buy.

-Prices plunged to a new low on Tuesday, October 29, a record 16 million stocks were sold, and then the market collapsed.

The Great Depression

-The stocks that people had bought were now worthless.

-Within months of the crash, unemployment rates began to rise as industrial production, prices, and wages declined.

-This period was called the Great Depression.

-The stock market crash alone did not cause the Great Depression, but it quickened the collapse of the economy and made the Depression more difficult and by 1932, factory production had been cut in half.

-Thousands of businesses failed, and banks closed, around 9 million people lost the money in their savings accounts when banks had no money to pay them.

-Many farmers lost their lands when they could not make mortgage payments,and by 1933, one-fourth of all American workers had no jobs.

  • A Global Depression

-Worried American bankers demanded repayment of their overseas loans, and American investors withdrew their money from Europe.

-The American market for European goods dropped sharply as the U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods so that American dollars would stay in the United States and pay for American goods.

-This policy backfired and it worsened the United States.

-Moreover, when the United States raised tariffs, it set off a chain reaction and other nations imposed their own higher tariffs.

-World trade dropped by 65 percent which contributed further to the economic downturn.

-More people became unemployed.

  • Effects Throughout the World

-Germany and Austria were particularly hard hit.

-In 1931, Austria’s largest bank failed and in Asia, both farmers and urban workers suffered as the value of exports fell by half between 1929 and 1931.

The World Confronts the Crisis

-The Depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems.

-Each country faced the crisis in their own way.

  • Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy

-British voters elected a multiparty coalition known as the National Government because they were hit hard.

-It passed high protective tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated the currency and it also lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth.

-By 1937, unemployment had been cut in half, and production had risen above 1929 levels.

  • France Responds to Economic Crisis

-France had a self sufficient economy.

-In 1930, it was still heavily agricultural and less dependent on foreign trade. Nevertheless, by 1935, one million French workers were unemployed.

-In 1933, five coalition governments formed and fell. Many political leaders were frightened by the growth of antidemocratic forces both in France and in other parts of Europe.

-So in 1936, moderates, Socialists, and Communists formed a coalition.

-The Popular Front, as it was called, passed a series of reforms to help the workers. Unfortunately, price increases quickly offset wage gains. Unemployment remained high.

  • Socialist Governments Find Solutions

-The Socialist governments in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis successfully. They built their recovery programs on an existing tradition of cooperative community action.

  • Recovery in the United States

-In 1932, in the first presidential election after the Depression had begun, U.S. voters elected Franklin D. Roosevelt.

-His confident manner appealed to millions of Americans who felt bewildered by the Depression. On March 4, 1933, the new president sought to restore Americans’ faith in their nation.

-Roosevelt immediately began a program of government reform that he called the New Deal. Large public works projects helped to provide jobs for the unemployed. New government agencies gave financial help to businesses and farms. Large amounts of public money were spent on welfare and relief programs.

-Regulations were imposed to reform the stock market and the banking system.

-The New Deal did eventually reform the American economic system. Roosevelt’s leadership preserved the country’s faith in its democratic political system. It also established him as a leader of democracy in a world threatened by ruthless dictators.

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