There is an ongoing debate between Jesus Christ and the Apostle Paul, but Jesus is the more commonly known founder. Christianity was developed out of Judaism during the 1st century C.E by Jesus Christ. The year that Christianity was formed in 33 C.E. Jesus helped his father with wood work and carving. He also counseled with Jerusalem’s elders in temples. Jesus was not accepted in his home town, like most prophets are treated. Although he was accepted in many other towns and cities. He was crucified on a cross on either April 2 or April 3 due to the people who thought he was wrong and very much disliked him. He was also whipped and was tortured until he finally died. The bible gives both dates though. After Jesus died his apostles Peter and Paul took over in teaching the people of the religion so that Christianity would not die out. Paul, who was originally a Pharisee, was one of the best to advertise and he was fully dedicated to spreading Christianity and did not want it to end.
What caused the split between the Catholic and Reformation churches?
That which caused the separation between the Eastern Christian churches which were led by the patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius and Western Christian church which was led by Pope Leo IX was called the Schism of 1054 or the East-West Schism. The Causes of this had included economic, political, cultural, and social.
Political and Cultural- There were plenty of people together who all spoke different languages and were different races but they were all ruled by the same Emperor with all of the same rules. Both Latin and Greek were common languages which were also both understood among most who lived there. After a few centuries the empire divided into the East and West with two emperors. This caused issues with languages because most people were not bilingual and only a few who could actually read Greek. When Charlemagne was rejected by the Emperor, it made him angry so he kept trying which led to him finally getting what he wanted.
Social- People had lost sight of what it was like to have good communication because all they wanted was power. Most people were not as educated as their people used to once be. They could not read Greek, they also, after being split, did not like the other churches as much as they could. They all just wanted to tear the other one down so that they could be the main church once again.
Martin Luther was born in Eisleben, Saxony the 10th of November in 1483 in southeast Germany. He worked with becoming a very knowledgeable man with school and was on his way to becoming a lawyer but even after getting his master’s degree of art, he had had a very big experience which caused him to want to be a monk because it had been his prayer that had saved his life during a storm. He studied the scriptures and dedicated his whole life to God. After going to school for the church he graduated and became a theology professor. In 1521 he was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
The 95 Theses or the Disputation on the power and Efficacy of Indulgences was Luther’s belief that one could reach salvation by faith and divine grace which was not believed by the Roman Catholic Church. The first two were about Luther’s core beliefs about Christ and how we were meant to find salvation and repentance. The other 93 were supporting the first two and each contained different content. The way that he revealed them to the people was by nailing them all to the door of the Cathedral because he clearly intended for the church to see and read them. After the church saw that it was Luther, they gave him a chance to take back what he had said, saying that it was wrong, but he denied it and they excommunicated him from the church.
The differences between the Catholic church and the Protestant church, that Luther started, were tradition, salvation, grace, justification, respect of saints, and respect of the virgin Mary. The Roman church believes that scripture and tradition were together, where the protestants say that all traditions should be accepted through equal amounts of reverence and devotion. The protestants believe that in order to get salvation in the end is all up to if you have faith in the religion. The Roman Church says that you can only receive grace by participating in church. The protestants view justification as when God has declared a person that is guilty is righteous because of what Christ has done for them. The Catholics believe that in the sight of God everyone is just viewed as righteous. The Catholics see that they must, in order to respect those of the church, they must pray for the saints and the Virgin Mary. The protestants emphasize direct access to God instead of that of which the Catholics do.
Pope Paul III was the first pope in the counter reformation for the RCC. In 1545 he convened the Council of Trent which was very important for the self- reform decrees and because it clarifies almost every one of the protestants doctrines. The council played a very important role in revitalizing the RCC. The council made many changes and declarations to the RCC and wanted very much to excommunicate Martin Luther but they were afraid that the Christians would revolt and attack them so they decided against it. The RCC aimed to fix the church by be ridding the protestants for good in between 1545 and 1563. The Catholic Church created new organizations to help spread their Christianity. The inquisition was a judicial procedure and was an institution that was established by the papacy and could be used to combat heresy. The peace of Augsburg happened in 1555 was a temporary settlement within the Roman Empire which was conflicting with the Reformation church. The prince of each place had to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism in order to reign their land.
In all of the world 33.32.% of the entire world is Christian. That is 2.2 billion people. Christianity is slowly growing over the past three years it has grown to populate two more percent then it did in 2010. It has not been growing rapidly but rather more steadily over time. Christianity is by far the most accepted and practiced religion in the world. Although a lot of people are not Christian most people accept it either way.
The founder of the Islam is Muhammad. He was born in 570 and died in 632. Islam is accepted by Muslims throughout the world. Muhammad is considered to be the last prophet of God who has lived on the earth. Muhammad was forty years old when he got revelation to begin a new religion in the year 610. He was spending time alone when an angel appeared, Gabriel, and told him that there was only one God. After this happened Muhammad decided to go and tell people of what had happened. He told them about there only being one God. People started to follow his teachings but only as his followers increased so did an uneasiness amongst the people of the Islam’s. Muhammad was widely accepted for his teachings and had many followers until his death in the year 632 from a high fever. He never claimed to be anything more than human. He was human just like the rest of us. The successor of Islam was Ali. This was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law.
The cause of the division between the Sunni and Shia of Islam, goes back to the events in the 7th century. After Mohammed’s death in 632, leadership of the Islamic community passed to Abu Bakr as-Sidddiq, one of Mohamed’s closest companions.
Sunni refers to the Sunnas, or the oral traditions of Koran. Koran is a body of work similar to the Jewish Talmud. One thing that the Sunnis believe in is that the position of Caliph should be a position that is elected by the religious leaders of the Islamic Community.
Shiite comes from the word Shia, which means “the party of Ali”. They are mostly found in Iran and Iraq; they are mostly Palestinians. They consider certain direct descendants of Ali- the Imams are the infallible and the true inheritors of Mohammed. Ali was the first Imam, his son Hassan soon became the second Imam, and the third is Hussein, Ali’s second son. Unfortunately, both sons were killed in the conflict with Caliph Muawiya.
The 5 core beliefs of Islam start with the Unity of God; Taw hid, meaning “making God one”, refers to the strict belief of monotheism and the refusal to compromise this position. The second belief is in Angels as part of God’s creation. In Arabic angels are known as Malik, from la’aka meaning “to send on a mission”. These angels have no sec and are made of light, whereas humans are made of clay. All of them are considered good, expect for Iblis which is Satan to Islamic. The third belief is in prophets; Muhammed was the very last long time prophet who was entrusted with bringing Scriptures to the people. The fourth belief is in scriptures, the Quran, meaning “recitation”, which is held to be the word of God. To accept and believe in the messages of Allah is a mere consequence of belief in Angels and the prophets. The fifth belief is in the Final Judgement, an extreme significance and is very often emphasized in Islam. With the promise of reward for a life of faith and in only one punishment for the people who were unfaithful and could not be trusted.
One reason Islam spread is because the contacts between the Muslim traders and callers with non-Muslim peoples. The Muslims presented the facts of Islam to others with wisdom and beautiful preaching. The other reason for the spread of Islam is because the Muslim conquests took the place to stop the threats of the Roman and Persian colonization’s. This removed the obstacles that deprived those people from knowing their new faith. The conquered peoples found in Islam freedom and tolerance they always sought.
Islam populates 23 percent of the global population. That would add up to about 1.6 people in this Muslim religion.
Islam is, as of right now, the fastest growing religion and will overtake Christianity. It is expected to surpass Christianity by 2050 because it is growing more than twice as fast as the world’s population. Muslims are expected to grow by 73% due to the fact of that the Muslim countries have a higher growth rate as of now and if growth rates keep up as they are, then the religion will keep growing in size for years to come.