Elements of Design by daisy flores


A mark made by a tool as it is drawn across a surface. The tool can be almost anything - a pencil, a pointed brush, a computer and mouse, even a cotton swab. Also, a line is defined as a moving dot or point, or can be called an open path.

a.Line can describe shape, so we can recognize objects.

b.Implied Lines are created by positioning a series of points so that your eye automatically connects them.

c.Psychic Lines create a mental connection between two elements. There is NO REAL LINE.

d.Lines have direction.

i.Horizontal Lines imply quiet, and repose or tranquility.

ii.Vertical Lines have potential for activity or movement, but also represent strength and nobility.

iii.Diagonal Lines suggest motion.

e.Contour Lines follow the edges of forms to describe outlines.

f.Gesture Lines show action or dynamics of a pose like actions lines in a comic book.

The image is visible by the lines used to outline it
The image shows an implied line with the characters being placed in the position that they are in


a visually perceived area created either by an enclosing line, or color or value changes defining the outer edge

a.Shapes can show “realism” or images as they are seen.

b.Shapes can show “distortion” or have a purposeful exaggeration of what is seen.

c.Shapes can show “idealism” or represent something as it “should” be in an ideal world.

The watercolor helps to create an outline of the characters

d.Shapes can show “abstraction” or a simplification of natural shapes to essential basic shapes


the description of lightness or darkness of a visual element

a.Value Contrast is the relationship of one element to another in respect to lightness and darkness

The church in the picture is bathed in light while everything around stays in a grey oppressing state.

b.Value Contrast helps identify the separate elements of a design.

c.Low Contrast uses a narrow range of values meaning there is not much difference in the lightness and darkness

The entire city is in a grey state nothing eye catching

d.High Contrast uses a wide range of values or a huge difference in the lightness and darkness in a design.


is the tactile quality of a surface or the representations of surface quality

a.Tactile Textures are real. We can actually feel them.

b.Visual Textures are illusionary. They give the impression of real textures.

The character's design shows realness
Texture is shown in the image is shown by the floor pattern and the realness of the keyblade

c.Pattern or the repetitive arrangement of elements can create texture.


a.Hue is the name of the color. Example: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black

b.Value is the range of lightness or darkness of a hue. Example: Light Blue, Dark Blue

c.Saturation is the brightness or dullness of a color.

d.RGB stands for Red, Green, Blue which are the three primary colors when working with light. All colors seen on a monitor or screen are created using the RGB model.

i.Red, Green, and Blue are additive primaries because when you mix equal amounts of Red, Green, and Blue you create white light.

e.CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black which is used for offset printing or four-color process printing.

i.Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow are subtractive primaries because when these are mixed they create black.

ii.Subtractive Primaries deal with ink or pigment while Additive Primaries deals with light.


the substrate or support for a graphic design

a.Format deals with size, shape, material, and purpose.

b.Contextual Constraints can be where and how the designs will be seen.

i.Magazines are seen up close

ii.Billboards are seen while driving and at a distance

c.Budget is also a contextual format


is created when two elements are very different

a.Types of Contrast

i.Size - Use various sized elements to create contrast

ii.Color - Complementary colors are easy ways to create contrast. Use colors that are very different from each other.

The fire in the character's hand creates a contrast to the surrounding environment and character
The image is contrasted by the hue of blue changing from a white/light blue to a dark hue of blue

iii.Shape - Use different shapes to create contrast


is created when you repeat some aspect of the design throughout the entire piece

a.Any element can be repeated.





The colors in the image repeat

v.Design Element

The symbols in the image repeat


vii.Spatial Relationships

viii.Anything the reader will visually recognize


is placing items on a page so they have a visual connection with something else on the page

a.When items are aligned it creates a stronger, cohesive unit.

Character eyes are facing eachother

b.Even when elements are physically separated from each other, if they are aligned there is an invisible line that connects them.

c.Alignment tells the reader that different elements belong together.

The character's eyes and bodies are aligned toward eachother


is when you group related items together

The grouping of people shows proximity

a.Group related items so the viewer sees them as one cohesive unit.

b.Items that are NOT related should not be close to other elements.

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