Southern Africa pages 377-396

LANDFORMS and Bodies of water

  1. The region of southern Africa consists of the 10 southernmost countries on the African continent.
  2. Africa has many plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet.
  3. The Zambezi is the regions longest river, which is 2,200 miles.


  1. The Kalahari Desert is a landform is Southern Africa.
  2. The Great Escarpment is a mountain range in Southern Africa.
  3. The Orange River is the second largest river in Southern Africa.
The Orange River

bodies of water

  1. The Zambezi
  2. The Limpopo
  3. The Orange River
The Zambezi
"Which type of landform is common in Southern Africa?"
There are many plateaus and mountains.


  1. Nearly all the region's climates have distinct seasons.
  2. Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year.

temperate zones

  1. Summer days are warm-- from 70 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees Fahrenheit
  2. Most of the rain falls during the summer, with very little the rest of the year.

desert regions

  1. Temperatures along the coast are mild, however with daily averages ranging from 48 degrees Fahrenheit to 68 degrees Fahrenheit.
  2. In inland areas of the Namib Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80 degrees Fahrenheit to more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?
The high elevation makes temperatures cool.

Natural resources

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?
platinum, chromium, gold, and diamonds are all natural resources. they help attract workers and investments from other countries that have helped south Africa's industries grow.

south Africa's resources

  1. The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world.
  2. The Republic of South Africa has the largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold in the world.

Energy Resouces

  1. Mozambique and Angola have large deposits of natural gas.
  2. Rivers provide more power for the region.

Minerals and other Resources

  1. Botswana is a world leading supplier of diamonds.
  2. Malawi's most important natural resource it its fertile soil.


  1. There are many animals in Southern Africa such as wildebeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many others.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?
Deforestation allows more sediment to enter the rivers, which reduces the water flow and the electricity that the rivers provide.

History of southern africa

Rise of Kingdoms

  1. Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. The capital was a city called Great Zimbabwe.
  2. As many as 20,000 people lived in the city and the surrounding valley.

the Mutapa Empire

  1. In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. The Portuguese arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500s.
The Zambezi River and The Limpopo River

Other Kingdoms

  1. The British destroyed Shaka's empire in the Zulu War of 1879.
  2. In the early 1800s, one king allied with the British on the nearby island of Mauritius to prevent the French form taking control of Madagascar.

European colonies

  1. The first settlements were trading posts could stop on their way to and from Asia.
trading posts

Clashes in south africa

  1. Cape Colony was founded my the Dutch in 1652.
Cape Colony

The Union of south africa

  1. In 1886, the Boers found the worlds largest gold deposits.

Colonialism in other areas

  1. In the 1960s colonies began to gain independence of self-rule.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?
The French claimed the most territory.

Independence and equal rights

  1. French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960.

The end of portuguese rule

  1. Mozambique's long civil war ended when a peace agreement was reached in 1994.

The birth of zimbabwe

  1. After granting Malawi ad Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe.

Equal rights in south Africa

  1. English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War II.
  2. In 1989 South Africa's president, P.W. Botha, was forced to resign.
  3. In 1993 a new constitution gave South Africans of all races the right to vote.
P.W. Botha

Life in southern Africa-The people in the Region

  1. In South Africa only 10% of the people are white.

Population patterns

  1. 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  2. Every square mile holds more than 250 people.
  3. Only 20% of the people live in cities.
Lesotho and Swaziland

Ethnic and Cultrue Groups

  1. The Shona makes up more than 80% of the population.
  2. 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethnic group.
  3. 4.5 million people Tsonga people are spread among the countries of South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique.

religion and Languages

  1. In Zimbabwe and Swaziland, a blend of Christianity and traditional religious beliefs is followed by about half the population.
  2. Swaziland, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique also have large Muslim populations.
What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?

Life in southern Africa

  1. Many rural people continue to follow traditional ways of life.

Urban life

  1. Africa has four cities-- Durban, Ekurhuleni, Cape Town, and Johannesburg--with populations of around 3 million or more.

Urban growth and change

  1. Outside the central cities are the white neighborhoods where about 20% of the city's population live.
  2. At least 12 languages are heard on city streets.
  3. The white community is mainly English and Afrikaner.

Family and Traditional life

  1. Rural villages are often small consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.
  2. Men often have more than one wife.
Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?

Southern Africa Today

  1. Southern Africa faces faces serious social, economic, and political challenges.

Health Issues

  1. Most people do not live beyond age 50 to 55.


  1. A major cause of death is HIV/AIDS.
  2. HIV/AIDS rate averages between 11 and 14 of the region.
  3. The huge number of AIDS orphans is a major social problem.

Progress and GRowth

  1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communication systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.
  2. Oil exports in Angola and Aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.

Help From other countries

  1. The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  2. South Africa remains the region's most industrial and wealthiest country.
Why is life expectancy so low in South Africa?
People get aids which leads to early death.


Created with images by pam1 - "zebra kruger national park south africa" • nathanh100 - "Map of Southern Africa, Undated" • Unsplash - "water river channel" • Dan Costin - "Cameron Trading Post" • SEDACMaps - "Southeastern Africa & Madagascar: Detailed Climate Zones\GPW v3 Population Density" • SEDACMaps - "Zimbabwe: Urban Extents" • SEDACMaps - "South Africa: Urban Extents" • SEDACMaps - "Lesotho: Settlement Points" • SEDACMaps - "Swaziland: Population Density, 2000" • SEDACMaps - "Mozambique: Population Density, 2000" • SEDACMaps - "Malawi Inequality (Generalized Entropy Measure, Parameter 1)" • Eddy Pula - "untitled image" • nathanh100 - "Map #2 from "Dark Star Safari", 2003" • lapping - "meldorf dithmarschen mecklenburg" • Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - "Global Carbon Monoxide, September 29, 2005" • Rob Swystun - "p1-African Children's Choir" • Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the BPL - "Africa, including the Mediterranean" • SEDACMaps - "Angola: Population Density, 2000" • Joaquín Martínez Rosado - "U.S. Territorial Acquisitions"

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