Renaissance Women and How they Affected Art: Fede Galizia Ofelia Hernandez

Fede Galizia was born in Milan, Italy(1578-1630) and was daughter of Nunzio Galizia, a renowned miniaturist. Her name translates to Faith.
She was considered an established artist by age 12, and was mentioned by the artist Gian Paolo Lomazzo, when he said that she was 'devoting herself to the imitation of our most excel- lent artists' in 1590.
An inscription on this painting "Portrait of Paolo Morigia" lead us to believe she was born around 1577, making her about 18 years old when she painted this renowned piece.
Along with portraits she painted religious scenes, but she is most recognized for her incredible and highly original still lifes.
She was known to create replicas, or duplicates with little difference for practice, as was done a lot in the 17th Century.
Her still lifes consisted mostly of fruits arranged in a metal or glass "tazze" with flowers alongside. Her compositions were simple and rarely showed different variations of fruit, and they were usually represented from a frontal, slightly raised viewpoint.
Her still lifes were subject to copy and of being wrongfully attributed. So it is necessary to decipher what are autheticthe replicas by her hands and what were copies made by followers. Her works are often determined as hers because of how finely detailed or highly executed they are.
She had a lot of second rate imitators, the best known was Panfilo Nuvolone, who a lot of Fede's works were wrongfully attributed to. But the subtle ways in which the details are executed show her true skills.
Nuvolone was a competent still-life painter, but without Galicia's subtlety.After studying these paintings closely it was deciphered that characteristics in Nuvolone's paintings had a browner tonality in the table top amongst other differentiating characteristics.
The earliest known fruit piece is a Caravaggio which is documented in the Ambrosiana in 1607, and is accepted to be painted before 1600. It is plausible the Fede was inspired by this piece, but her conception and the works she produces are completely different.
Still lifes of the early 17th century often included fruit but not at the main subject. Fede Galizia should be regarded as an important pioneer in the fruit pieces in European still-life painting.

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