The symbol in the center of the flag is the Guatemalan coat of arms. It includes the resplendent quetzal, the national bird of Guatemala that symbolizes liberty. A parchment scroll bearing the date of Central America's independence from Spain. The crossed rifles mean the willingness to defend itself if needed, a bay laurel crown, the symbol for victory, and the crossed swords represent honor.
The population in Guatemala in 2016 was 15. 47 million people.
A mestizo is a man of mixed race, especially the offspring of a Spaniard and an American Indian. Indigenous people is another word or name for native people. K'iche are people that are descendants from Mayan people that have evolved into their own culture. (images from left to right according to the order in passage)
Kaqchikel people are another descendant from the Mayan culture but have also evolved to form their own culture. The Mam culture is an native to Guatemala. The Q'eqchi people are descendants from many pople as well.