RECONSTRUCTION RESEARCH QUESTION To what extent was president johnson to blame for the failure of reconstruction? Support, refute, or modify

President Johnson has been referred to as the worst president to ever hold office in United States history. His legacy is of course, weak but is this title justified? As president, Johnson lack of leadership lead to the failure of the reconstruction era. As president Johnson continued Lincoln's 10% plan which was Lincoln's blueprint for readmitting confederate states into the union. If said southern states held a vote and 10 percent of the voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union, the state as a whole would be readmitted into the union. Under president Johnson this policy became more lenient as Johnson didn't require an oath by the states to be readmitted, essentially allowing confederate states back into the union with no consequence. This policy pissed off radical republicans and increased divisions within United States politics. Johnson also had stern opposition to the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, the Civil Rights Act of 1866, and the Fourteenth Amendment. His opposition of these policies proved detrimental to hopes of further compromising to forward movement after the war. In the end, Johnson did more to extend the period of national strife than he did to heal the wounds of war.

The picture highlights the failures of Johnson's presidency. The cartoon identifies many failures which led to the fall of reconstruction such as the spearheading of the Freedman Bureau, his racism towards F.D., his constant use of the constitution, dead ducks (not pursuing confederates after the war), his abuse of presidential veto power, etc. The cartoon displays him trampling on the american people and a rilled up people who oppose Johnson aka: the house
Johnson's veto of the civil rights act had adverse effects as it led congress to pass the 14th amendment eventually having the same effect on African Americans as the civil rights act but as a more permanent solution. 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War being an amendment it is essentially irreversible.
In this picture we see a dismantled union and the "rail splitters" attempting to fix it. Although this picture was created during reconstructions it displays the legacy of a broken and divided union. The legacy of reconstruction continued the mistreatment of blacks, extreme poverty of Blacks, a overwhelmingly democrat south as confederate soliders were let back into the union consequence free, and a long tradition of segregation. Reconstruction was an utter failure in achieving equality for African Americans as many loopholes were put in place to keep African Americans inferior socially, economically (sharecropping), and politically.

Andrew Johnson was a white supremacist governing in a time of immense racial change “This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for white men,” he wrote in 1866. As president, Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Bill and opposed many other moves by the republicans to move forward with reconstruction. The republican congress overrode the veto in unprecedented move to create an amendment (14th) that would serve the position of the Civil Rights Bill. Johnson's laid back and almost counter-productive approach to reconstruction led the Radical Republicans to an inevitable failure, and Reconstruction had ended within a decade. Racial discrimination continued on into the middle of the following century. President Johnson's loose approach to reconstruction and readmitting states into the union is alike the response of Herbert Hoover in the great depression. Johnson's lack of action in reconstruction policies concerning civil rights and ex-confederate states is alike President Hoovers approach to the great depression as he took a lassaiz-faire approach leading to an economic crisis of likes never seen before. Johnson favored a very lenient version of Reconstruction and state control over who could vote, according to their race.

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