Resource Industry: Forestry By:Anik Hettiarachchi

What is the Forestry Resource Industry?

The Forestry Industry is a big source of wealth to many, and a great trade item for Canada. The Forestry Industry provides social, environmental and economic benefits for many Canadians. There are three sub categories of the forest industry, Solid wood manufacturing, pulp and paper manufacturing and logging. The forestry industry is mostly a primary industry. The part of the industry that makes it primary is getting the wood chopping it down and selling it. Any manufacturing of the wood makes it a secondary industry. Solid wood manufacturing is a secondary industry in this industry they take softwood lumber and structural panels and engineer the woods into products. Pulp and paper manufacturing is a secondary industry, companies in this area produce a large variety of products from newspaper and household tissues to pulp for rayon production. the forestry and logging industry is primary, in this industry they harvest the wood and sell or trade to manufacturing companies.

Pulp and Paper

Softwood

Forestry and Logging

How does the Forestry Industry Contribute to our Economy?

The Forestry industry is very export oriented. This means we sell a lot of our forestry to other countries which can produce products or manufacture them. 7% of all exports from Canada are under the forestry industry. Canada is the worlds largest producer of newsprint, bleached softwood and Kraft pulp. We are the second largest producer of softwood lumber. In the past years traditional and forest products have contributed 8% to 10% of Canada's GDP. GDP is the way countries measure how healthy a countries economy is. Even though it contributes less than some other resource industries towards the GDP it still creates jobs and contributes more to the balance of trade. The forestry industry contributes in all these ways and is a huge part of our economy whether we like it or not.

Is the Forestry Industry Sustainable?

Canada has a commitment to sustain our forestry. The commitment promises that the forest's will stay healthy for now and years to come. This is supported by laws, regulations and all kinds of policies. This commitment began in 1992 and continues to be renewed every 5 years. One of the policies are each company that chops down a tree has to report the are under national and international obligations. Illegal logging is a huge problem all around the world but since Canada has made the commitment to sustainable forests most illegal activities have been prevented. This means that if a manufacturing company was to buy wood from Canada they can be confident that the wood they are buying was harvested legally. More forest land in Canada is certified than anywhere else in the world. Even though we are preventing illegal activities and sustaining our forests quite well there are still many problems with our system.

How Can We sustain this industry and forests for even longer?

Our forests in Canada are under the commitment but we can still do more to help them last even longer if not forever. Firstly we can all help ourselves by planting trees. if everyone around the world planted one tree we would have 7.4 billion trees! I know this is highly unrealistic but we can start the movement between us and spread it. Secondly all companies the harvest trees should only be able to selective cut. Normally companies use the cheaper option which is clear cutting. Clear cutting is where they cut all trees in an area. Selective cutting is where they only cut mature trees. this lets the habitat continue to grow while keeping more tress alive. If we do these things the forestry economy will be more sustainable. If we don't do these things the Co2 level will rise which will contribute to climate change and global warming.

Forestry industry and global trade

The forestry industry contributes positively to Canada's economy. In 2015 the forest industry balance of trade was $21.5 billion which is huge compared to the negative balance of the economy at that time. Canada has began trading in this industry way more often and is making a great amount of money from it. Canada is one of the largest logging traders in the world.

Forestry Products in Canada per year

Hardwood lumber (cubic metres) 1,754,400

Softwood lumber (cubic metres) 62,974,400

Newsprint (tonnes) 3,500,000

Printing and writing paper (tonnes) 3,041,000

Wood pulp (tonnes) 16,841,000

Structural panels (plywood and oriented strandboard) (cubic metres) 7,966,755

How do we get the wood and where do we get most of it from

As i explained before there are two most common methods of extracting wood the most common is clear cutting where they just cut all trees in an area. This is worst for our environment and contributes to climate change. Also this deosnt ensure that all the wood will be good wood. The second and best method for our environment is selective cutting. This is the method where they specifically cut trees (mostly the older ones) this deosnt especially help our environment as we are still cutting trees but it is still better than clear cutting.

As you can see in this picture most of Canada is covered by managed forests this shows that the commitment is working and the unmanaged forests will start turning into managed forests.

Problems in the Forestry Industry

The Forestry industry is a problem itself as we are taking away the trees that give us oxygen. The industry is too large and there is no way we can stop it now but there are many ways we can make it better. Firstly a huge problem for the forestry industry is forest fires. Now a days there even more forest fires due to climate change. The forest fires can destroy up to 50,000 trees per fire. All those trees could have been sold to help Canada's economy at some point. Secondly as climate change continues warmer weather helps pests that damage trees survive. Over 50% of B.C's pine timber has been destroyed by pests and insects that wouldn't normally be able to survive but climate change is allowing it. Thirdly Climate change is the biggest problem CREATED by this industry and many others. The industry is basically killing itself while other industries help it go faster.

Climate Change

This brings me to my final point Climate change. Climate change is one of the biggest issues in the world. many people don't realize they are contributing to climate change and don't believe in it because they cant see it. If people could see climate change and pollution they would realize that this is a real issue and they need to start changing before its too late. Scientists say that it only took 3 degrees of climate change for the planet to get out of an ice age. We are making climate change grow at a very fast rate it is almost impossible to stop. deforestation leads to climate when we burn the wood or manufacture it into something in factories. when factories burn fossil fuels it sends Co2 into the atmosphere and warms the ocean. When the ocean gets warm the glaciers melt and flood our lands. This is what we are doing to our planet and it needs to stop. By conserving trees using the selective cutting method we can change this in small proportions. If we all make our footprint on this planet smaller we can reduce climate change. People like Donald Trump are going to ruin our world by not believing in climate change. I believe he will encourage the use of fossil fuels and do anything for money. For all these reasons we need to stop climate change in its tracks and educate more people about it.

Conclusion

In conclusion the forestry industry contributes a ton to our economy and climate change is a huge problem waiting to bite our butts. As a scientist said "the planet wont die but we will". Climate change can be slowed almost stopped but we all need to work together for this.

Created By
Anik Hettiarachchi
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Credits:

Created with images by markusspiske - "more destination view" • #ODF - "slash mat" • Pixaline - "cut tree axe wood" • P_Linehan - "P1020173" • Antranias - "pine forest forest pine" • scheidegger0 - "sunbeam rays sun" • domeckopol - "forest light mood" • catburston - "Forest" • Ylvers - "forest fire fire smoke" • baluda - "tree forest desert"

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