Its root is Calvinism.
It applied Calvinist rigor to Catholic teachings on Grace.
They believed that only God granted salvific grace, and only to a select few people.
They believe that people were predestined for damnation or salvation. They believed that Christ did not die for everyone and only the predestined for salvation would receive communion. They also believed that the soul is a slave to original sin’s effect. Penance did not save the damned.
Quietism- Founded in 1675 by confessor Miguel Molinas
Says that people need complete passivity with god Disregards the sacraments and asceticism The church reacts by condemning the heresy through Innocent XI in 1687
Founded by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim (Auxiliary Bishop of Trier)
Brought Gallican influences to Germany through his writings under the pen name Febronius Conciliarist roots: believed the power of authority is in Ecumenical Councils, not the Pope
Called German bishops go abandon allegiance with Rome Broke from the Church by arguing that the pope was merely an administrative head of the Church that did not have the power to legislate This ultimately claimed that the authority of the Church was found in the national leader Also denied the primacy of the pope over bishops and the pope’s authority to speak definitively on matters of Faith and morals Condemned by Pope Clement XIII in 1764
Febronius decided that because all bishops but one pledged allegiance to Rome, he would reconcile with the Church, Pope Clement XIII was quick to condemn the writings of Febronius, and in 1764, he urged the German bishops to reject his teachings and suppress their diffusion. Febronius made a halfhearted retraction in 1778, but his writings continued to be quite influential, especially in inspiring German nationalism within the Church. All but one bishop pledged allegiance to Rome, though, and so Febronius reconciled himself with the Church before his death in 1790
Founded by Joseph II
Took the ideas of Febronius, making it a conciliarist heresy Changed local governments into federal governments without bureaucracy diplomacy
Created the first secret police
Mandated German as the national language Removed privileges from nobles and free cities He alienated the Hungarians for their language Placed his office in charge of appointing the publication of papal documents He controlled Austrian monasteries and cut them off from their superiors in Rome
His policies failed and he had to turn to the pope
~ How is Deism different from supernatural Religion. Deism is a way of thinking of the one God, while a supernatural religion has an entirely different image and idea of God. ~ How does it describe the Universe?
It says that the universe was basically just something God made and left alone. It says that it is made from God but not carried out by God. What is its basis of knowledge and understanding? Deism is the denial of any divine revelation and supernatural religion. It believed that you can only base on human reason. It believed in a watchmaker God. God winds up the universe and lets it govern itself. How is it related to Agnosticism, Atheism, and Secular Humanism? It is related to Agnosticism because it doesn’t completely believe in a god. Also, Agnosticism states that there may be a god, however his existence cannot be proven by reason. Deism is also related to Atheism because the Deistic philosophy does not truly support the definite existence of a god, just as Atheism does not support the existence of a god. Deism is related to Secular Humanism because they both use human reasoning. How is freemasonry related to Deism? Freemasonry relates to Deism with the belief in a supreme being. Both do believe a supreme being exists and that both worship it
What is freemasonry? Freemasonry is a secret fraternal organization. They spread rationalistic ideas. They didn't agree with organized religions such as Catholicism.