Landforms and Bodies of Water
- The Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the continent is considered the place where the two oceans meet.
- The country of Madagascar occupies the world's fourth largest island.
- The region of Southern Africa consists of the 10 southernmost countries on the African continent. It also included four independent island countries and two French island territories in the Indian Ocean off Africa's east coast.
- A series of plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet cover across Zambia and Angola.
- In Angola the escarpment, a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface, run parallel to the Atlantic Coast and continues through Namibia.
- The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand- covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level. It is bordered by even higher plateaus. The Kalahari covers much of eastern Namibia and most of Botswana. In some places, long chains of sand dunes rise as much as 200 feet high. The sand in some areas is red because of minerals that coat the grains of sand.
Bodies of Water
- Orange river
Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa
- The tropic of Capricorn crossed the middle of southern Africa. This places the northern half of the region in the Tropics. Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate. Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year. Most of it fall in the spring, summer, and fall from October to May. The high elevation makes temperatures cool.
- Much of South Africa, central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and south Mozambique have temperature, or moderate climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature.
- Temperatures are like those in the semiarid regions, but ocean currents and moist ocean brings up to 55 inches of rain annually,
- Western South Africa, western Namibia, and much of Botswana are arid. Along the coast, the Namib gets very little rain. In some years, no rain falls
- In inland areas of the Namib Desert temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80s to more than 100 degrees. In winter, freezing temperatures sometime occur. During wet years, desert grasses and bushes appear. Much of the time, however the Namib is home to vast areas of barren sand.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?
- Its located at a higher elevation.
- Mineral resources have helped the Republic of South Africa in particular to build a strong economy.
South Africa's Resources
- The republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producers of diamonds both gems and industrial diamonds, or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.
- Resources along with deposits of coal, iron, ore, uranium, copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving industry. This industry has attracted workers and investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's industries grow.
- Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well as does Angola.
- Zimbabwe and Zambia get electricity from the huge Kiribati Gorge dam on the Zambezi River.
Minerals and other Resources
- In countries outside Southern Africa, groups have also mined diamonds to pay for rebellions and other violent conflict. Diamonds used for this purpose are called blood diamonds.
- Gold is a leading export for Zimbabwe. Mozambique has the world's largest supply of the rare metal tanalite, which is used to make electronic parts and camera lenses.
- Tourists come from throughout the world to see these animals. Poaching or illegally killing game, is a problem. Poachers shoot elephants for there valuable ivory tusks and rhinos for their horns.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?
- deforestation allows more sediment to enter rivers which reduces water flow and the electricity that rivers produce.
History of Southern Africa
- Some people were hunter gathers and some herded cattle, while others traded.
- Around the year A.D 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique. By the 1300's it had become a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it to Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.
The Mutapa Empire
- In the late 1400's the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique. They gradually gained control over the empire and forced its people to mine gold for them.
- The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800's to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa. Shaka was killed in 1828, but his empire survived until the British destroyed it in the Zulu War of 1879.
- Around 1500, Portugal and other European colonies began establishing settlements along the African Coast.
Clashes in South Africa
- Cape colony, founded by the Dutch in 1652 at the cape of good hope on the southern tip of what is now south Africa.
Union of South Africa
- Beginning in the 1830's thousand of Bores left the colony in a migration called the Great Trek and settled north of the Orange river.
Colonialism in other areas
- European control in Southern Africa continued for about the next 80 years. Not until the 1960's did the regions colonies begin to gain independence and self- rule.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's
Independence and Equal rights
- Britain granted independence to Malawi and Zambia in 1964 and to Botswana and Lesotho in 1966.
The end of Portuguese Rule
- Mozambique's ling civil war ended when a peace agreement was reached in 1994, but peace was not achieved in Angola until 2002.
The birth of Zimbabwe
- In 1979 the government finally agreed to hold elections in which all Rhodesian's could take part.
Equal right in South Africa
- The new government leaders began enacting laws that created a system called apartheid and Africaans word meaning "apartness"
- The African National Congress an organization of black South Africans began a campaign of civil disobedience disobeying certain laws as a means project.
- Countries began placeing embargos or bans on trade on South Africa.
Life in Southern Africa
- The regions black African population is made up of many different ethnic culture groups.
- Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho Swaziland.
- Angola's rural areas are thus much more thinly populated rural areas in South Africa.
- The average Malawian earns less than $350 per year.
Ethnic and Culture Groups
- One group the Shona makes up more than 80% of the population of the country Zimbabwe.
- Africans are not a single people.
- About 4 million Tswana from the major population in Botswana.
Religion and Langauges
- Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced it's people's religious beliefs.
- Portuguese remains the official ;language in Angola and Mozambique.
The main religion practiced in Southern Africa is Christianity.
Life in Southern Africa
- Many rural people continue to follow traditional life.
Urban growth and Change
- Outbreaks of cholera and other diseases has resulted from drinking polluted water.
- The regions cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures.
- The white community is mainly English and Afrikaner.
Family and Traditional life
- Rural villages are small often consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.
- People in the countryside practice subsistence farming growing the food they used to survive.
Southern Africa today
- Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.
- In the majority of the countries most people do not live beyond age 50 to 55.
- Malaria a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes ia a problem in several countries.
- Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
- A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS
Progress and Growth
- Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns industries railroads and communication systems that have been destroyed by years of civil war.
- Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable democratic governments.
Help from other Countries
- The united States has used economic aid to strengthen the democracy in Southern Africa.
- Other countries are international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.
Life expectancy in Southern Africa is so low because of lack of good rural health and diseases.