Guiding Question Number 1
What are the origins of BaseBall???
Everybody knows Abner Doubleday invented baseball in the city of Cooperstown New York. Well that story is not right at all. It's not even in the same timezone as the real story. The real story is Alexander Cartwright in 1845 invented baseball by combining a couple of games in town ball, a British game called rounders, and cricket.
The New York Knickerbockers were the first professional baseball club led by who other then Alexander Cartwright. Cartwright laid out the first set of rules for the team and even got them a game against a pro cricket team called the New York Nine. They were called the KnickerBockers because that was the name of Cartwright's fire engine company.
Daniel Lucius "Doc" Adams was an American baseball player and executive who is registered by historians as an important figure in the sports early years. For most of his career he was part of the knickerbockers. In the early part in 1840 he played for the New York Base Ball club. Then in 1845 he played for the Knickerbockers.
How Did The Rules Of Baseball Change?
The rules of baseball changed significantly through out the years of the game. Many rules that needed to be changed took a lot longer than theyshould have but were eventually changed. Baseball actually used to be a pretty physical sport. If u were fielding and you couldn't get to the runner to tag him you could throw the ball the runner and if you hit him he would be out.
Canvas bases 15 inches square were introduced.
Home plate was placed in the angle formed by the intersection of the first and third base lines.
The hitter was exempted from a time at bat if he walked.
Player reserve clause was for the first time put into a contract.
The number of "called balls" became 9 and all balls were either strikes, balls or fouls.
The pitcher had to face a batsman before pitching to him.
A staff of umpires was first introduced.
Base on balls was reduced to 8 "called balls."
The base runner was out if hit by a batted ball.
The catcher had to catch the pitch on the fly in order to register an out on a third strike.
The "foul bound catch" was abolished and the pitcher could deliver a ball from above his waist.
All restrictions on the delivery of a pitcher were removed.
Six "called balls" became a base on balls.
Championships were to be decided on a percentage basis.
One portion of the bat could be flat (one side).
Home base could be made of marble or whitened rubber.
Chest protectors worn by catchers and umpires came into use.
The pitcher's box was reduced to 4 feet by 5 1/2 feet.
Calling for high and low pitches was abolished.
Five balls became a base on balls.
Four "called strikes" were adopted for this season only.
Bases on balls were recorded as hits for this season only.
The batter was awarded first base when hit by a pitch.
Home plate was to be made of rubber only - dropping the marble type and was to be 12 inches square.
Coaches were recognized by the rules for the first time ever.
Player reserve clause was written into the contracts of minor leaguers for the first time.
The base on balls exemption from a time at bat was restored.
A batsman was credited with a base hit when a runner was hit by his batted ball.
Four balls became a base on balls.
A sacrifice bunt was statistically recognized.
Substitutions were permitted at any point in the game.
Large padded mitts were allowed for catchers.
Pitching distance increased from 50 feet to 60 feet 6 inches.
The pitching box was eliminated and a rubber slab 12 inches by 4 inches was substituted.
The pitcher was required to place his rear foot against the slab.
The rule exempting a batter from a time at bat on a sacrifice was instituted.
The rule allowing a flat side to a bat was rescinded and the requirement that the bat be round and wholly of hard wood was substituted.
Foul bunts were classified as strikes.
Pitching slab was enlarged to 24 inches by 6 inches.
Bats were permitted to be 2 3/4 inches in diameter and not to exceed 42 inches.
Infield-fly rule was adopted.
A held foul tip was classified as a strike.
Catchers were compelled to remain continuously under the bat.
Foul strike rule was adopted by the American League.
Height of the mound was limited to 15 inches higher than the level of the baselines.
Pitchers were prohibited from soiling a new ball.
Shinguards were reintroduced.
The sacrifice fly rule was adopted.
The cork center was added to the official baseball.
Earned-run statistics and definitions were added to the rules.
All freak deliveries, including the spitball, were outlawed.
The failure of a preceding runner to touch a base would not affect the status of a succeeding runner.
The batter was given credit for a home run in the last of the ninth inning if the winning run was on base when the ball was hit out of the field.
The number of runs batted in were to be included in the official score.
Frivolous ninth-inning uncontested steals in one-sided games were discarded.
Pitcher was allowed to use a resin bag.
The minimum home-run distance was set at 250 feet.
Defensive interference was changed from an offense solely by a catcher to one by a fielder as well.
No fielder could take a position in line with a batter's vision with the deliberate intent to in any way distract the batter.
Regulations referring to a batter contacting his own ball were clarified as was the area of bases awarded a batter when a defensive player threw his glove at a batted or thrown ball or in the case of spectator interference.
The save rule was added to the official rules for the first time.
All major-league players were ordered to wear protective helmets.
The rule on glove size and color was minutely outlined for standardization.
The American League began using designated hitter for pitchers on an experimental basis.
Suspension for three days became mandatory if batter were to hit a fair ball with a filled, doctored or flat-surfaced bat.
The save rule was changed again.
MLB adds limited (home run calls, fair or foul) instant replay to be in effect for all games starting on Friday, August 29th.
Slides on potential double plays will require that base runners must make a bona fide attempt to reach and remain on base.
"Alexander Cartwright." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.
"Baseball Rule Change Timeline." Baseball Rule Change Timeline. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.
"Doc Adams." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.
History.com Staff. "Who Invented Baseball?" History.com. A&E Television Networks, 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.
Scott Kendrick MLB Expert. "Baseball's Origins -- An Illustrated History." About.com Sports. 24 Sept. 2016. Web. 07 Dec. 2016.