Geographically, Ontario and Quebec uses most of the water. Ontario intakes 38.8% of the total while Quebec intakes 25.6% of the total. 75.2% of the manufacturers' water supply was from self employed freshwater and 14.3% from public utilities .Use of water in industries: Freshwater withdrawals: Paper industries 46% & primary metal industries 34.7%. Public utilities withdrawals: food industries 35.4% and paper industries 30.5%
Canada has approximately 7% of the worlds renewable freshwater and 86% of the water is used by thermal power generation,oil and gas, mining and agriculture. Canada has to maintain waters quality and availability. Quality is an important thing which cannot be degraded because it can harm aquatic life and human health. As for availability Canada recycles its water in different things or it goes through different treatments.
When waters quality is ignored in aquatic ecosystem, social and economic impacts rises with environmental effects and later there is going to be less support o human activities. This problem can also end up as higher cost of drinking water and water use in industries and agriculture.
Drinking water quality is really important as it can cause illness. The best way to make sure water is clean is to take a preventive risk approach which helps yo to understand the process in which water reaches to you by its nature t and also helps you to identify the impact or the effects made on a consumers health.
Usually drinking water is broken down into 3 groups: drinking water, treatment water, source water and the distribution system which carries the water to homes,businesses, industries and etc.
As the water is carried to different places, it is also tested during that journey to make sure that water can be used for drinking. The determine weather it is drinkable or not there are water guidelines made by the Federal Provincial Territorial Committee on Drinking Water. These guidelines provides details and rules about contaminants,like E.coli and chemicals. E.coli indicates about the presence of microbiological pathogens and they should never be exceeded as it can get people sick very quickly.
Canada works with national and international standards setting organizations to develop health based performance standards, so that materials like metal and other chemicals will not get mixed by water on it is journey as water is a solvent.
Freshwater quality indicator 2003-2012
Water is an essential things in our lives and its availability too. Water is not available where it is most needed and it is said that in future waters availability can be a great issue due to the environmental changes. There can be less amount of water in prairie region while causing floods in other areas.
Thermal power generation, manufacturing, agriculture and municipalities are some of the sectors which usually rely on withdrawal of water. Thermal power generation are the largest user of water and mostly the water is returned to its source except agricultural activities like crop irrigation. This makes agriculture largest consumer of water.
SOURCE WATER: Our water supplies, lakes,rivers, underground aquifers which are created through melting of snow and rain.
WATER TREATMENT: Water is filtered and purified for human use.
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Pipes which delivers clean water to our taps.
WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM: The pipes which takes water from our home. These are called sewers.
WASTE TREATMENT: This is the process where the contaminants are removed from used water so it can be returned to the environment safely. This process is also called “ sewage treatment.”
STORM WATER SYSTEMS: The pipes which sends water from our home and businesses collected while rain or melting of snow to natural resources.
Storm water is usually the result of rain or melting of snow.Some of the water is dissolved by the earth and some of the water finds it’s way to lakes and rivers.In urban areas the ground is sealed as there are parking lots, buildings, roads and etc, that's why the water to prevent flood the storm system drains that water in storm drains and piping it to lakes,rivers and the ocean.
MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT
Preliminary Treatment: In this stage grit is removed,like sand & gravel, egg shells, coffee grounds etc from raw sewage.
Primary Treatment: The water is hold up so that solids can sink to the bottom and oil and grease to float to the top. After all the things are removed it is passed to the next stage.
Secondary Treatment: Biological matter is removed from the liquid in this stage and passed on the next stage of treatment or discharged to the environment.
Tertiary Treatment: Water bis treated with chemicals and filtered prior to being released in the environment.
Reuse Of Water
Water is recycled in many different ways in Canada. Reuse of water in cities is is divided into 2 groups: 1)low water quality because low health risk- used for filling recreational lakes, car ,truck, street washing and park irrigation & 2) high quality water because high health risk.
Mostly water is reused in toilet flushing, agriculture (Western Canada), landscaping, golf courses, non-food crops, urban parkland and etc. In Western Canada, reusing of water for agriculture is well established, for example a project in the City of Vernon,British Columbia. For more than 30 years, city's wastewater is pumped to a reservoir and later it is used to irrigate 970 hectors of agriculture and recreational lands.
Water is really an important thing in our lives and in Canada it is used in many ways. Canada is very efficiently working on its quality, availability and how can the the recycle it. Canada made a lot of agreements internationally to get better treatments and created more guidelines to increase the water quality. A lot of places in Canada has already started to recycle water and started to get better quality. Organizations like Alberta Lake Management Society (ALMS) in Canada are also working on water and healthier environment.