Municipal Water

Canada is the country with third smallest population and it is still the second largest user of freshwater per capita and contains one fifth of the worlds freshwater though half of the run-off water goes to north away from the population. Average use of Canada's per household is 360l per day.As Canada develops and there is urban growth there is more pressure and more water is needed.Municipal water is supplied to homes, business places and also industries and for agriculture.


water is a very important thing in our lives and it is not only not used for drinking or health but it is also used for commercial and industrial use.Water can be divided into two categories, "Instream use" and "Withdrawal use".

Instream uses includes water for transportation,fisheries, hydroelectric power generation,wildlife, recreation and waste disposal, takes place with the water remaining in the natural setting. Instream water is polluted by oil diesel, while the natural routes of water systems is affected by hydro-electric facilities and evaporation and flooding is caused by reservoirs. It also causes mineral and element lactate.

Withdrawal uses includes municipal use, thermal power generation, mineral extractions,irrigation, mineral extraction, manufacturing, remove water from its natural setting for sometime and then return it. Withdrawal use usually returns the water back to the natural resource but it is less than they took and it is of lesser quality.


Wastewater contains "sanitary waste" which comes from households sewers and also industries, institutions and commercial establishment. Wastewater contains human and organic waste, nutrients, suspended solids, microorganisms, pathogens and household and industry chemicals. This water is not usable and goes through a treatment to be purified or recycled.


Grey water is the wastewater from sinks,bathtubs, washing machines and e.t.c. Grey water can be recycled. It is told that Canada generates 300+ liters of waste per day. As grey water comes from our sinks, tubs and etc, it contains food,dust,oil, grease,detergents,hair,clothing fibers and even fecal matter that results from showering,washing our hands and doing laundry.The grey water from our home goes to pipelines and then filtered so it can be reused.

Water use in homes


The land used to produce tobacco,fruits and vegetables is irrigated. According to the records in 2001, Canada irrigated 784 469 hectares of farmland.Irrigation consumes approximately 70% of the water.

How does industry SECTORS uses water?

Industrial sectors uses water in various ways. They use is for washing, fabricating, processing (47.3% total intake), diluting, to create a product, transportation,sanitation needs in between manufacturing needs and cooling, condensing and steaming (42% total intake). Many factories use water to make commodities such as paper, chemicals,food, refined petroleum and metals. Paper industry used 73.1% of their water for processing and other 22.8% for cooling,condensing and steam. Primary metal industries used 29.2% for processing and 55% of their water for cooling, condensing and steam.

Usually industries directly consume water from the source and in Canada, manufacturing industries consumed 3,806.2 million cubic meters.

Quantity drawn by the paper factory 41.9%, primary metal industries 27.7%, chemical industries 8.8%, food factories 8.7% and coal, petroleum and other industries 7.9%

Water use by industries in 2009

Geographically, Ontario and Quebec uses most of the water. Ontario intakes 38.8% of the total while Quebec intakes 25.6% of the total. 75.2% of the manufacturers' water supply was from self employed freshwater and 14.3% from public utilities .Use of water in industries: Freshwater withdrawals: Paper industries 46% & primary metal industries 34.7%. Public utilities withdrawals: food industries 35.4% and paper industries 30.5%


Canada has approximately 7% of the worlds renewable freshwater and 86% of the water is used by thermal power generation,oil and gas, mining and agriculture. Canada has to maintain waters quality and availability. Quality is an important thing which cannot be degraded because it can harm aquatic life and human health. As for availability Canada recycles its water in different things or it goes through different treatments.


When waters quality is ignored in aquatic ecosystem, social and economic impacts rises with environmental effects and later there is going to be less support o human activities. This problem can also end up as higher cost of drinking water and water use in industries and agriculture.

Drinking water quality is really important as it can cause illness. The best way to make sure water is clean is to take a preventive risk approach which helps yo to understand the process in which water reaches to you by its nature t and also helps you to identify the impact or the effects made on a consumers health.

Usually drinking water is broken down into 3 groups: drinking water, treatment water, source water and the distribution system which carries the water to homes,businesses, industries and etc.

As the water is carried to different places, it is also tested during that journey to make sure that water can be used for drinking. The determine weather it is drinkable or not there are water guidelines made by the Federal Provincial Territorial Committee on Drinking Water. These guidelines provides details and rules about contaminants,like E.coli and chemicals. E.coli indicates about the presence of microbiological pathogens and they should never be exceeded as it can get people sick very quickly.

Canada works with national and international standards setting organizations to develop health based performance standards, so that materials like metal and other chemicals will not get mixed by water on it is journey as water is a solvent.

Freshwater quality indicator 2003-2012


Water is an essential things in our lives and its availability too. Water is not available where it is most needed and it is said that in future waters availability can be a great issue due to the environmental changes. There can be less amount of water in prairie region while causing floods in other areas.

Thermal power generation, manufacturing, agriculture and municipalities are some of the sectors which usually rely on withdrawal of water. Thermal power generation are the largest user of water and mostly the water is returned to its source except agricultural activities like crop irrigation. This makes agriculture largest consumer of water.


SOURCE WATER: Our water supplies, lakes,rivers, underground aquifers which are created through melting of snow and rain.

WATER TREATMENT: Water is filtered and purified for human use.

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Pipes which delivers clean water to our taps.

WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM: The pipes which takes water from our home. These are called sewers.

WASTE TREATMENT: This is the process where the contaminants are removed from used water so it can be returned to the environment safely. This process is also called “ sewage treatment.”

STORM WATER SYSTEMS: The pipes which sends water from our home and businesses collected while rain or melting of snow to natural resources.


Storm water is usually the result of rain or melting of snow.Some of the water is dissolved by the earth and some of the water finds it’s way to lakes and rivers.In urban areas the ground is sealed as there are parking lots, buildings, roads and etc, that's why the water to prevent flood the storm system drains that water in storm drains and piping it to lakes,rivers and the ocean.


Preliminary Treatment: In this stage grit is removed,like sand & gravel, egg shells, coffee grounds etc from raw sewage.

Primary Treatment: The water is hold up so that solids can sink to the bottom and oil and grease to float to the top. After all the things are removed it is passed to the next stage.

Secondary Treatment: Biological matter is removed from the liquid in this stage and passed on the next stage of treatment or discharged to the environment.

Tertiary Treatment: Water bis treated with chemicals and filtered prior to being released in the environment.

Reuse Of Water

Water is recycled in many different ways in Canada. Reuse of water in cities is is divided into 2 groups: 1)low water quality because low health risk- used for filling recreational lakes, car ,truck, street washing and park irrigation & 2) high quality water because high health risk.

Mostly water is reused in toilet flushing, agriculture (Western Canada), landscaping, golf courses, non-food crops, urban parkland and etc. In Western Canada, reusing of water for agriculture is well established, for example a project in the City of Vernon,British Columbia. For more than 30 years, city's wastewater is pumped to a reservoir and later it is used to irrigate 970 hectors of agriculture and recreational lands.

Water is really an important thing in our lives and in Canada it is used in many ways. Canada is very efficiently working on its quality, availability and how can the the recycle it. Canada made a lot of agreements internationally to get better treatments and created more guidelines to increase the water quality. A lot of places in Canada has already started to recycle water and started to get better quality. Organizations like Alberta Lake Management Society (ALMS) in Canada are also working on water and healthier environment.


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