Causes of the Reform Movement: 2nd Great Awakening & Transcendentalists Movement
2nd Great Awakening- Period of religious revival in the United States in which the Baptist and Methodist denominations significantly. It caused people to want to change the world which led to the other reform movements. Leaders - Charles Grandison Finney, Lyman Beecher, Barton Stone, Peter Cartwright, & James B. Finley.
Transcendentalists Movement- People, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them. A transcendentalist is a person who accepts these ideas not as religious beliefs but as a way of understanding life and relationships. Leader- Ralph Waldo Emerson
James Fenimore Cooper- He was the first great American novelist. Author of the novels of frontier adventure known as the Leatherstocking Tales.
The Last of the Mohicans- Takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War & recounts the story of an unarmed massacre, two sites being kidnapped, and their rescue by Hawk-eye and his two Mohican friends.
Gilbert Stuart- One of America's foremost portraitists. He painted many people including the first six presidents. One of his unfinished portraits of George Washington is called The Athenaeum.
Portraits of Founding Fathers- The Gibbs-Coolidge paintings are the only surviving complete set of portraits showing the first five presidents of the United States. The group was painted in Boston during the last phase of Stuart's career.
Emily Dickinson- One of America’s greatest and most original poets of all time. She wrote about things that intrigued her. She was very interested in science and botany.
Education Reform: led by Horace Mann
Before: there were few public schools , teachers had limited education & little pay , but most didn't even go to school .
After: there were more and better public schools but teachers go paid more , and public universities started to accept woman .
Abolition Movement: led by William Lloyd Garrison , Fedeick Douglass , Angelina and Sara Grimke , Sojourner Truth
Before: African Americans were inslaved and treated cruelly.
After/ Solution: Underground Railroad . In 1863 Abraham Linclon delivers the Empaclpation Proclamation.
Women's Rights: led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Lucy Stone , Abigail Adams ( first leader) , and Lucretia Mott
Before: Woman could not vote or hold office, fathers and husbands controlled money and property , husbands could abuse wife's.
After: Leaders accomplished their goals we had control over our own property and wages, Elizabeth Blackwell started her own hospital , and we were given the right to vote.
Prison and Health Reform: led by Dorothea Dix
Before: Jail inmates were in chains and cages, children were held in jail with adult prisoners, and mentally ill were treated as prisoners.
After: New Asylums were built, state government stopped putting debtors in prison, a public justice system was established for children , and cruel punishment was outlawed.
Temperance Movement: led by Frances Willard
Before: Americans drank and excess amount of liquor. Typically people who endured hard physical labor drank. It was a way of life in the 1800s.
After: At first they wanted people to drink less liquor but it then turned into banning liquor completely. When people pledge to quit drink it was called joining the "Cold Water Army".
Women's Rights Movement Video:
Education Reform Movement Link: