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中共霸凌式的金钱外交将被国际孤立 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:《foreign policy》;作者:ElisabethBraw;发布时间:July 20, 2020 / 2020年7月20日

翻译:cathy r;简评:cathy r/InAHurry;校对:TCC;审核:InAHurry;Page:拱卒

简评:

中共利用加入WTO,牺牲自然环境,和剥削本国人民在经济上取得了巨大的“成功”。财大气粗的中共有了对外扩大影响力的底气,借助向国外提供大量的投资和其“一带一路”的倡导,中共在国际上似乎有了很多“朋友”- 当它把万人唾弃的新国安法强加于香港时,竟然有53个“友好国家”在联合国对中共表示支持。

非常可惜的是,似乎已有越来越多的国家开始拒绝中共以金钱外交为基础的“友谊”了:英国决定撤换华为;一些一带一路上的国家和非洲国家要求重新谈判与中共的借贷条款,并称中共的投资为债务陷阱;就连川普总统最近也明确指出已经对与中共之间的贸易协议“失去了兴趣”。本文作者认为,所有这一切的原因是,中共也许用钱买到了影响力,但却从来没有买到来自其他国家的“爱”。文章指出,中共如果想赢得世界超级大国之位还需要“软实力”,即真正赢得其他国家的“友谊”的能力。而在这点上,东德 - 这个曾经备受指责的,已经彻底失败的前社会主义国家都有很多值得中共学习的地方。

应该说,中共的霸权外交有其必然性。但令人鼓舞的是,世界开始看清中共国"不安好心"的外交政策,中共这只黄鼠狼渐渐被国际社会看出其独霸世界的野心。因此,中共与国际主流思维的背离,注定它在世界舞台上是没有未来的。

原文翻译:

China Can Buy Influence, but It Can’t Buy Love

中共国可以买到影响力,但买不到爱戴

The Chinese government could learn a thing or two about soft power from a long-gone and much-maligned socialist regime: East Germany.

中共国政府可以从一个早已逝去、且曾经备受指责的社会主义政权——东德——那里学习一下软实力。

Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives at a meeting during the BRICS Summit in Brasília, Brazil, on Nov. 14, 2019. Pavel Golovkin/POOL/AFP/Getty Images 中共国国家主席习近平出席了2019年11月14日在巴西巴西利亚举行的金砖国家高峰会。

Thanks to its large foreign investments and its global Belt and Road Initiative, China is winning plenty of friends around the world. Western policymakers, meanwhile, are struggling to compete with a country that has deep pockets, little interest in human rights, and no qualms about bullying countries into becoming its allies. And with economies around the world weakened by the coronavirus, the Chinese engine seems unstoppable. But China’s supposed friends are beginning to rebel, as last week’s retreat from Huawei 5G networks showed. If the mighty China wants to make a run for the United States’ superpower-with-lots-of-friends throne, it should learn from the much-maligned East Germans, who lacked both cash and prestige but won friends by offering training—and friendship.

借助向国外大量提供投资和它在全球的一带一路倡议,中共国在世界各地赢得了大量的朋友。而与此同时,西方的政策制定者正试图与一个拥有雄厚财力,卻对人权毫不在乎,並对用霸凌手段迫使其他国家成为其盟友毫无顾忌的中共国竞争。随着全球经济被冠状病毒削弱,中共国的"引擎"似乎势不可挡。但中共国所谓的"朋友"已經开始反叛了,上周华为5G网络被撤換就证明了这点。如果强大的中共国想要争夺美国的“拥有众多朋友的超级大国”之位,它应该向备受指责的东德人学习,他们既缺乏现金,也缺乏威望,但却通过提供培训和友谊赢得了朋友。

When, a number of years ago, I went with a group of Ethiopian long-distance runners on a pre-dawn training run in the hills outside Addis Ababa, I was surprised to stumble on a construction project staffed by Chinese construction workers. In recent years, such projects have proliferated. According to the Council on Foreign Relations’ Belt and Road Tracker, between 2014 and 2017 alone China made loans worth over $120 billion to countries eager to build new infrastructure. The countries have—often using Chinese firms, as per the terms of their contracts with China—built highways and power plants, among other things. China has won new friends around the world. Western countries, by contrast, have lost opportunities for friendships.

几年前,当我和一群埃塞俄比亚长跑运动员在亚的斯亚贝巴郊外的山上进行黎明前训练时,我惊讶地发现一个由中共国建筑工人施工的建筑项目。近年来,此类项目的数量激增。根据外交关系委员会对“一带一路”追踪,仅在2014年至2017年,中共国就向渴望建设新基础设施的国家提供了超过1200亿美元的贷款。这些国家按照与中共国的合同条款的规定,经常会使用中共国公司来建造公路和发电厂。中共国赢得了世界各地的新朋友。但相比之下,西方国家却失去了建立友谊的机会。

China has won new friends around the world, a footprint in many countries with which it previously had little connection, and lots of business for its firms. Western countries, by contrast, have lost opportunities for friendships. They can’t issue loans as China does, and they especially can’t do so without thorough scrutiny of the recipient country’s intentions to adhere to human rights and the rule of law. For example, 42.3 percent of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP is debt to China; Belt and Road—and China’s other investments—strengthens China and weakens the West.

中共国在世界各地赢得了新朋友,在许多以前与之关系不大的国家留下了足迹,同时还为其公司赢得了大量业务。相反地,西方国家却失去了建立友谊的机会。他们不能像中共国那样发放贷款,尤其是在没有对贷款国是否有意向坚持人权和法治进行彻底审查之前,他们是不能发放贷款的。例如,吉尔吉斯斯坦42.3%的GDP 是对中共国的债务;一带一路和中共国的其他投资增强了中共国,却削弱了西方。

But as it turns out, China’s friendship is rather unpleasant. The loans, of course, have to be repaid—a challenge for countries suffering from the effects of the coronavirus. And some countries are discovering that the loan-cum-construction deals may not benefit them. Last month, the government of Pakistan said it wanted to renegotiate Belt and Road repayments, accusing Chinese companies of inflating the cost of construction projects by $3 billion.

但事实却是,中共国的友谊相当得令人不快。当然,这些贷款是必须偿还的——这对遭受冠状病毒影响的国家来说是一个挑战。而且一些国家正在慢慢发现,这种附带建设的贷款可能对它们没有好处。上个月,巴基斯坦政府表示想要重新谈判“一带一路”的还款条约,并指责中共国公司虚增建设项目成本30亿美元。

Also in June, a week after Chinese President Xi Jinping hosted a China-Africa summit in Beijing, a Kenyan court declared a $3.2 billion Chinese loan for a Kenyan railway partly operated by a Chinese company illegal. As the Economist reports, Egypt has suspended the construction of the world’s second-largest coal-fired power plant, a project funded by China, while Bangladesh is dropping plans to build a Chinese-funded coal plant. Pakistan has asked China to modify loans worth $30 billion for power projects. And in April, Tanzanian President John Magufuli canceled a Chinese loan worth $10 billion, signed under his predecessor, for the construction of a large port in Bagamoyo—operated by a Chinese firm. The contract, Magufuli said, could only be accepted by a drunken man. In mid-July, the United Kingdom—which has for a decade courted Chinese investments—reversed its decision to include Huawei in its 5G network. Not even Italy, one of China’s top friendship targets in Europe, is producing the hoped-for benefits; Italian media is reporting that the government has rewritten its 5G requirements in a way that excludes Huawei participation.

同样的,今年6月,在中共国家主席习近平在北京主办中非峰会的一周后,一个肯尼亚法院宣布了一個部分由中共国公司经营的肯尼亚铁路项目的32亿美元中共国贷款是非法的。正如《经济学人》所报道的,埃及已经暂停了世界第二大燃煤电厂的建设,而该项目的出资方是中共国;与此同时,孟加拉国正在放弃一个由中共国出资的燃煤电厂的建设计划;巴基斯坦要求中共国修改价值300亿美元的电力项目贷款;今年4月,坦桑尼亚总统约翰·马古富利(John Magufuli)取消了在其前任领导下签署的价值100亿美元的中共国贷款。这项贷款是用于在巴加莫约建造一个由一家中共国公司经营的大型港口。 马古富利说,只有醉汉才会接受这份合同;在7月中旬,已经追求中共国投资十年之久的英国也改变了它的决定,将华为踢出其5G网络;就连中共国在欧洲的首要盟国目标之一的意大利也没有产生预期的效应。意大利媒体报道说,政府已经改写了其对5G的要求,排除了华为的参与。

If you search “debt-trap diplomacy,” you get countless articles about China. The U.K. government, meanwhile, is facing Chinese revenge over its apparent plan to cancel Huawei participation in the country’s 5G network. According to British media, the Chinese ambassador has threatened that Chinese firms will cancel plans to participate in Britain’s planned high-speed rail line and a new nuclear power plant.

如果你搜索“债务陷阱外交”,你会得到无数关于中共国的文章。同时,英国政府正面临着中共国对其明确取消华为参与5G网络计划的报复行动。据英国媒体报道,中共国大使曾威胁说,中共国公司将取消参与英国高速铁路和新核电站的计划。

The fallout is occurring now because China has successfully built a global network of commercial relationships—but it hasn’t built friendships. If it’s going to compete with the United States for superpower status, it will have to match America’s soft power, a phenomenal platform the U.S. government has built over the years by initiating and nourishing friendships with a wide range of countries. But China has a distinct disadvantage: It’s not as attractive as America. Few people around the world voluntarily listen to Chinese songs, watch Chinese television, use Chinese slang (or any Chinese words), or dress like the Chinese people they see on TV.

现在之所以会发生不愉快,是因为中共国虽然成功地建立了一个全球商业关系网络,但它并没有建立起友谊。如果它要与美国竞争超级大国地位,它就必须能与美国的软实力相媲美,这是美国政府多年来通过发起与和滋养与众多国家的友谊而建立起来的一个非凡的平台。但是,中共国有一个明显的劣势:它没有美国那么有吸引力。世界上很少有人自愿听中文歌曲,看中文电视,使用中文俚语(或任何中文单词),或者像他们在电视上看到的中共国人那样穿着。

In the growing confrontation with China, Europe is starting to take sides—just not America’s.

在与中共国日益激烈的对抗中,欧洲开始选边站队——但不是美国那邊。

Attacks on cell phone towers are merely the latest evidence that virtual disinformation is leading to actual violence.

对手机发射塔的攻击只是虚拟的虚假信息正在导致实际暴力的最新证据。

East Germany, too, had an image problem and needed to make friends. And unlike China, it had no cash to distribute. But the much-maligned East Germans went about doing so with a much more effective strategy, one that was relatively inexpensive and won them lasting affection. It built personal friendships.

东德,也曾有一个形象问题,曾需要交朋友。与中共国不同的是,它没有资金可供分配。但备受指责的东德人却采取了一种更为有效的策略,这种策略相对便宜,还为他们赢得了持久的好感。它可以建立个人友谊。

University students formed a cornerstone of the East Germans’ approach. Between 1951 and 1989, up to 78,400 students from more than 125 countries completed their university degrees in East Germany. (As in West Germany, there was no bachelor’s degree, which meant the students spent five or more years in East Germany gaining a master’s degree, medical degree, or equivalent.) Many of those 125 countries were socialist allies of East Germany, but many others were developing countries that sent promising youth to East Germany for a first-rate university degree funded by the East Germans. Michelle Bachelet, the United Nations high commissioner for human rights and a former president of Chile, studied medicine in East Berlin in the 1970s as a refugee from Chile’s Augusto Pinochet regime. In addition, the East Germans hosted exchange students from the West. Foreign students were even given a monthly stipend by the East Germans. Indeed, East Germany’s fine universities were a key asset for the country’s diplomats.

大学生是东德策略的基石。1951年至1989年,来自125个以上国家的78,400名学生在东德完成了大学学位。(就像在西德一样,东德没有本科学位,这意味着学生在东德居住了五年或更长时间以获得硕士学位、医学学位或同等学历。) 在这125个国家中,许多是东德的社会主义盟友,但许多其他国家是发展中国家,他们把有前途的年轻人送到东德,获得由东德资助的一流大学的学位。20世纪70年代,联合国人权事务高级专员、智利前总统米歇尔·巴切莱特(Michelle Bachelet)曾在智利奥古斯托·皮诺切特政权下以难民身分在东柏林学习医学。此外,东德人还接待了来自西方的交换生。外国学生甚至能每月得到东德人的津贴。事实上,东德优秀的大学就是该国外交上的重要资产。

While China does debt-trap diplomacy, East Germany did distinctly eclectic educational diplomacy. In a small town in the northern part of the country, it ran a training camp for guerrilla fighters from Nicaragua, Mozambique, Angola, and South Africa’s African National Congress (ANC); they all trained with the East Germans, who calculated that some of them had a realistic chance of taking power. And they did. One graduate, Mike Hala, went on to lead the ANC’s armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, also known as MK. Another MK member, Ronnie Kasrils, became a post-apartheid intelligence minister, while yet another South African, Siphiwe Nyanda, became a post-apartheid chief of South Africa’s armed forces and subsequently the country’s communications minister. Kasrils later estimated that some 1,000 MK members had been trained by the East Germans and called the East German training superior to similar instruction provided by the Soviet Union. (Unfortunately for East Germany, the ANC only came to power after East Germany itself had collapsed.)

在中共国进行债务陷阱外交的同时,东德却进行了明显的折衷教育外交。在该国北部的一个小镇上,它为来自尼加拉瓜、莫桑比克、安哥拉和南非非洲人国民大会(ANC)的游击队员们开办了一个训练营;他们都是在东德人那里接受训练的,东德人认为他们中的一些人很有可能会变成掌权者。他们确实做到了。一名毕业生,迈克·哈拉(Mike Hala),后来领导了非洲人国民大会的武装派别(UmkhontoWeSizwe),也被称为MK。另一名MK成员罗尼·卡斯拉尔斯 (Ronnie Kasrils)成为了种族隔离后的情报部长,而另一名南非人西皮威·尼南达(Siphiwe Nyanda)成为了种族隔离后南非武装部队的首领,随后成为了南非的通讯部长。卡斯拉尔斯后来估计,大约有1000名MK成员接受了东德人的培训,并称东德人的培训优于苏联提供的类似培训。(对东德来说,不幸的是,非洲人国民大会的这些人是在东德崩溃后才上台掌权的。)

The Chinese Communist Party has long been cultivating friends though its United Front apparatus, which focuses on so-called people-to-people diplomacy and includes state-sponsored friendship societies. But while the East Germans used friendship outfits to convince foreigners of East Germany’s attractiveness, China pressures ethnic Chinese citizens of other countries to forge closer links with their “home country.” And in a survey of 65 countries, Freedom House reports that “Chinese officials have held trainings and seminars on new media or information management with representatives from 36 [countries].”

长期以来,中共国共产党一直在通过它的统战部培养朋友,它的着重点是所谓的人民外交,包括由国家赞助的友谊协会。但是,当东德人用友谊的外衣说服外国人相信东德的吸引力时,中共国却向其他国家的华裔公民施压,要求他们与“祖国”建立更紧密的联系。在一個对65个国家的调查中,“自由之家”报告说,“中共国官员与来自36个国家的华裔代表举行了关于新媒体或信息管理的培训和研讨会。”

East Germany didn’t exactly provide training in democracy—but at least it offered an ideology, a vision, much the same as the United States has done.

东德并没有提供民主方面的培训,但至少它提供了一种意识形态、一种愿景,这与美国所做的是很相似的。

East Germany didn’t exactly provide training in democracy—but at least it offered an ideology, a vision, much the same as the United States has done through academic scholarship programs and training schemes for foreign officials. China offers censorship training. Some of the iron-fisted courting seems be paying dividends: In a recent U.N. Human Rights Council report on China’s new security law in Hong Kong, 53 mostly developing countries(including Togo and Republic of Congo) voted with China, while 27 mostly Western countries voted against it. But would countries vote with China if they had a viable option not to?

东德并没有提供民主方面的培训,但至少它提供了一种意识形态、一种愿景,这与美国通过学术奖学金计划和外国官员培训计划所做的很相似。中共国却提供审查培训。但一些“铁腕"的追求似乎得到了回报:在联合国人权理事会最近关于中共国在香港的新国安法的报告中,53个主要是发展中国家(包括多哥和刚果共和国)投票支持中共国,27个以西方為主的国家投反对票。但是,如果各国有不投票的选择,它们会投票支持中共国吗?

As a country, East Germany was a failure. Its economy was the subject of ridicule. The Stasi kept an eye on visitors. Yet even this sorry country could have built vassal-like relationships with even weaker countries. (Think Cambodia.) Instead it established friendships that lasted. Years later, Bachelet described her time in East Germany as “very happy.” “When I married [in East Germany], the government gave me a larger apartment. There were so many rights that people simply took for granted,” she recalled. And while African leaders such as Tanzania’s Magufuli feel they’re being taken for fools by China, African revolutionaries trained by the East Germans were amazed to find themselves waited on by white staff.

作为一个国家,东德失败了。它的经济曾是人们的笑料。东德秘密警察一直在监视着来访游客。 然而,即使是这样一个个可悲的国家也可以与更弱小的国家(想想柬埔寨)建立起类似附庸的关系。相反地,它建立了持久的友谊。几年后,巴切莱特(Bachelet)(智利前总统)形容她在东德的日子“非常幸福”。她回忆道,“当我(在东德)结婚时,政府给了我一套更大的公寓。人民有这么多的权利,所以人们把一切看作是理所当然的了。”当像坦桑尼亚的马古富利这样的非洲领导人觉得他们被中共国当成了傻瓜时,受东德训练的非洲革命者们却惊讶地发现自己被白人工作人员伺候着。

I’m not proposing that China train guerrillas, but Beijing needs to grasp that it can’t buy love—or even admiration. The Chinese government would do well to study its long-gone humble socialist sister’s soft-power approach. Otherwise many more leaders will join the clear-sighted Magufuli in rebelling against China’s brutish pursuits.

我并不是建议中共国训练游击队,但北京需要明白,它不能买友爱甚至钦佩。中共国政府应该好好研究那早已消失的社会主义姐妹的软实力策略。否则,会有更多的领导人将与目光清晰的马古富利一起反抗中共国野蛮的追求。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】