Oil spill affecting ocean
Oil is used to fuel airplanes, cars, trucks, heat our homes, and to make products like medicine and other useful things to our environment. We even use it for heating and generating energy for homes, tires, ink, DVDs, and plastic. Oil spills can happen when people are careless or make mistakes by not checking the oil tanker when they ship it to another country next thing you know it leaks into the ocean when cause bad things. Oil spill can affect animals and plants in two different kind of ways like from oil itself and from response or cleanup operation. Spilled oil can harm living things because its chemical constituents are poisonous.Which can affect organisms both from internal exposure to oil through ingestion or inhalation and from external exposure through skin and eye irritation. Oil can also smother some small species of fish or invertebrates and coat feathers and fur, reducing birds and mammals' ability to maintain their body temperatures.Many of health effects may develop when the oil spill goes close to where people live or work and may come in contact with humans through breathing gaseous oil compounds and/or oil compounds adsorbed on particulate matter (dispersed through air). Another exposure pathway may relate to activities in contaminated ground (e.g., soil) or through skin adsorption when touching spilled material. Canada's oil industry produced more than 3.9 million barrels of oil per day last year and is part of the global crude oil market. Crude oil is one of the most actively traded commodities in the world. Because of this, oil prices change daily in response to changing conditions that affect supply and demand.
The cost to transport crude oil or petroleum products by pipeline is a fraction of the cost of different modes of transportation. The cost to ship crude oil by rail is generally $10 to $15 per barrel versus under $5 per barrel by pipeline.
Without new pipelines, every new barrel of oil will move by rail. In 2015, about 140,000 barrels per day of crude oil - or about four per cent of Western Canada's production - were moved by rail.
Canadian crude oil producers support rail safety measures and will continue to work with service providers and Transport Canada to ensure the safe delivery of product.
When oil extraction starts to begin the chemicals were used to create the oils well and to move oil out of the well. It is hard to get rid of the oil and if you throw it away it is dangerous, a lot of oil companies have ignored it. Pipelines and wells can leak which cause oil spills.
The methods of extracting oil is enfleurage, expressed oils, and solvent extractions. Enfleurage is one of the oldest methods of extracting oils and is rarely used these days because of its high cost. It involves placing the flower petals on a layer of glass that is first spread with a thin layer of fat called chassis. The volatile oil spreads into the fat, then the fat is collected and the oil is extracted from the fat using alcohol. Expressed oils are when oils are taken from the rind of fruits they are called expressed oils. This method is cold and does not involve any solvents or heat of any kind. Most of the citrus oils are extracted in this way including grapefruit, lime, orange and lemon oils. Solvent extraction is a method of extracting essential oils that is controlled by the perfume industry. And technically does not produce therapeutic grade oils because chemicals such as hexane, acetone, di-methylene-chloride and others are used in the process.
The developing methods are exploration and site abandonment. Exploration involves the search for rock formations works with oil or natural gas deposits, and involves geophysical prospecting or exploratory drilling. Site abandonment includes plugging the wells and restoring the site when a recently-drilled well lacks the potential to produce economic quantities of oil or gas, or when a production well is no longer economically works successfully.
One of the methods that oil companies are changing to make oil more sustainable are to track their sustainability progress involves voluntary sustainability reporting, which is an organizational report that provides information on economic, environmental, social, and governance performance. An increasing number of organizations wish to improve the sustainability of their operations and activities, making a process to measure performance, set goals, and manage change and a sustainability report is the key platform for communicating positive and negative performance, as well the capturing information that can influence policy and operations. Reporting initiatives include the Global Compact, the Global Reporting Initiative, and the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, some which follow guidelines developed by the Extraction Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights. The EITI is a global coalition of governments, companies and civil society working together to improve openness and accountable management of incomes from natural resources. So human have the rights to say what they want that should be changed to make oil more sustainable for their environment