Interactions BY Kayleigh Umfreville: 13495183

Projection Mapping

Projection mapping is also called Spatial Augmented Reality and video mapping. It uses a video projectors and 3D surfaces to project light, which will make it interactive and dynamic for the viewers. The main areas are; static or interactive, video, theatrical and VJ'ing. When choosing a suitable projector for this you need to consider the throw ration, resolution and brightness as if it is not the best quality then the image could get distorted. To project onto a building it would normally need 20,000 lumens, then on a smaller scale it would be about 2200 lumen which is normally for theatrical lighting. The software that can be used for this is Heavy M, Mad Mapper and QLab. Projection mapping was first used in the 1960s within Disneyland's Haunted Mansion; they used fake disembodied heads to make them appear animated. Since then projection has come a long way as it can now connect people from different locations due to the work done by the University of North Carolina in the 1990s. In recent years the softwares to create the projection has become more accessible, due to the cost decreasing and technology increasing, allowing individuals and companies to experiment with it more, creating more interest and awareness for this type of media. This technology allows challenging concepts to become more achievable as this gives an inventive way of making ideas happen. For instance in the West End performance of Wizard of Oz they use projections to show the contrast between the different worlds and creating the tornado, before they wouldn't have been able to show this as easily, as the effect would be done using lighting and sounds, as a result the shows can be more of an sensory experience.

Disney's Haunted Mansion

Sketch of the Office of the Future

More recent idea of Office of the Future

Stage production of Wizard of Oz

The positive things about projection mapping is that it can be easily set up, as the projectors can be effortlessly be transported to the venue, and logistically reduces labour costs and different spaces that the art could be in. Also when working for a client the animation can easily be changed, which means that you do not have to waste time with changing the whole animation. Disadvantages could be that projections on a 2D surface will not be fully effective as a 3D surface. Projections are limited to a dark room or at night, as during the day you would not be able to get the full effect of the animation. The projectors can be a very expensive investment to start with as they can range from £1,000-£7,500 for the powerful projector.

I think that this technology is really good as it can make marketing for a product more engaging, which helps to get the target audience to feel more involved with the product.

This was Nokia's advertising in Covent Garden created by Seeper

I believe this is a really innovative way of getting your product out there, as it will make a bigger difference to than having an advert on the television, because they are easily forgotten and audiences like to skip adverts, while guerrilla marketing is memorable, and can spread through word of mouth. In addition projection mapping can create interest for culture/tourist aspects of cities. As they create events where the animation will be on a landmark building and people will come to see it, which means they are going around seeing parts of the cities that they did not know about, or gives them a chance to see it. For example in 2013 there was a projection map on to Sagrada Familia and thousands of people turned up to see this and was also used as an appreciation to the architect/artist Gaudi, helping the audience to appreciate the culture of Barcelona. I would really like to learn and experiment more with this area as I think it is very interesting and different to the other areas that we have been looking at in this module. I think it is really fascinating as you have to map round the outside of the building and make sure that the different parts of the building work together effortlessly to make it captivating.

The real world application of projection mapping has increased; it's used in concerts, theatre, events, advertising, museums, computing and gaming.

How concerts are being developed with projection is really interesting as they are creating visuals to go with the sound to create more of a performance. For example at the BBC Proms this year they projected an animation of colour splatters, the company 59 Productions create this stunning work which tracks the movements of the cello as well. This then enhances the performance to make it unique experience to the audience

Also to create something that is completely different to everything else, music videos are also experimenting with projections

An event this year that really caught my eye was the Olympic Opening Ceremony in Rio, where they had projections on the floor which made it look like buildings were growing from the ground which was very interesting to look at. I think this way a very effective way to use such a large space and to make sure that everyone in the audience feels involved and can watch, or the people at the edge of the arena will not be able to see anything.

Another applied application on projections which I think is very important is how it's used in museums. From making learning interactive the user will learn more as Benjamin Franklin said "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn" Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry worked with Potion Designs creating an exhibition teaching audiences about Future Energy. There were five interactive games which encouraged the user to save energy. Saving energy has been an issue that the government is trying to make everyone more aware of, so teaching children through interactive projections can be a really successful way to get the message across.

Visual environments

Augmented Reality is technology that superimposes a computer generated image on the user's view of the real world in real time, which provides a composite view. This is closer to the real world than virtual reality. Our smart phones have the necessary components to be able to use these applications. Programmes that you can use to create AR are ARToolKit, Aurasma and Argon. Augmented Reality can be divided into two categories; Marker based recognition and location based applications. Marker based overlays the marker with coding and the camera recognises the marker and calculates the position then covers it with a digital image. This is used within QR codes, when you scan your phone of the bar code and 3D animation could appear. Location based has the data information on physical locations. This can be closely linked to Global Positioning systems which are interlinked with satellites and communication devices which can pinpoint geospatial location. The first location based mobile game is Pokemon Go, which uses real world landmarks and geo-tags to create the "Pokestops".

Virtual reality is the term to describe a 3D computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted by a person. It can be used within applications such as architecture, sport, medicine and entertainment. It was first experimented in 1957 with the sensorama by Morton Heilig, but the problem with this was that it was not portable.

Advantages of this software are that it's interactive, cost effective and adaptable prototyping. However, disadvantages could be that it will affect everyone's privacy as it will know where you are at all times, we could lose how to interact socially as we will be staring through a screen and not what is right in front of us.

I think this technology will be the futures of our homes because, they can develop the fridge to know what you want before you yourself know what you want, as all of our technology will be interlinked and be able to work together from different areas to know what you want. I feel this is very scary because, does it mean that we will stop doing things for ourselves and rely on this. I think this could be the same for VR as could it get to the point were audiences play it so much they cannot tell the difference between reality and virtual, but VR has a lot of potential outside of the gaming world as well. A game called Beasts of Balance designed by Alex Fleetwood is a board game using AR components to enhance the experience of it. I think this is an effective way of AR as it isn't involving privacy and more to the creative side of it, this will appeal to more people.

3 examples of AR apps:

Microsoft has invested millions in to the research and development of AR where they created the HOLOLENS, which is a glass that allows you to play around holographic computing. I think this will be very useful for education as students can easily visualise what their lectures are explaining to them, for instance if they were looking at a human brain, they could have it through the lens instead of doing it physically which can be very expensive. A company called Spellbound creates augmented reality apps for therapeutic play for children in hospitals, with VR they help to tackle loneliness; I think this is very important because, we can use this technology to improve the quality of people's lives as well for entertainment.

Connecting two worlds

The main aspect to this is a microcontroller is a small computer which still contains a CPU, hard disk and a RAM. They are embedded inside another device which is then used for sensing input from the real world and controlling devices based on the input. They are dedicated to run one specific task and are low power devices. They are easy to use and have simple sensors which can communicate with desktops well. They can be divided up into categories according to their memory, architecture, bits and instructions. For instance bits; an 8 bit is normally used for logic and arithmetic operations and 32 bit is mainly for automatically controlled appliances like implantable medical appliances.

Arduino creates open source projects for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control physical devices. They can read inputs such as sensors, buttons or Twitter messages. They can run on Mac, Windows and Linux. Advantages of using these are; it is inexpensive, cross platform, simple and clear. I think that this is a really good idea to help users understand electronics more, as from being able to understand the basics of circuits you can develop your ideas to become more innovative. This software can be used to make 3D printers, which helps with short run custom manufacturing. In addition can make small motors like remote controlled cars.

Little bits makes open source library of modular electronics that snap together with magnets. They can be used for prototypes and learning. The company aims to make the electronic accessible to everyone by breaking down the complex and turning it into simplistic technologies that everyone can start to learn how to use, making them universal. They have collaborated with NASA to create a space kit version were you learn how to build the mars rover and wireless transmissions. I think this is an inventive way to help get the younger generation away from play with the technology to know what is behind it; this could inspire them to do this type of work or just to enhance their knowledge. Also it can be a easier and cheaper way to make prototypes for companies, as this will take less time but still give the same effect, as a result saving time. With Little bits you can make an alarm system that can go off from sensors detecting the pressure change. Also they can make a wireless fan, from using a slide dimmer, bargraph, power and a fan.

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