Pure Substances and Mixtures Kate and Aiden

Particle Theory: The three types of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas

The particle theory has been modified and developed over centuries of time. It explains the properties of matter, and that it consists of particles with tiny spaces in between them. it explains these particles are always on the move. Each particle also has a different energy level, determining how fast they move. It also shows that these particles have attractive forces, and the stronger or weaker the force, the different type of matter it creates. This theory has been very useful in and observing studying matter. Example: When attractive forces are strong and hold the particles tightly together, the matter type becomes a solid. When the forces are weak, it allows the particles to move more freely, creating a liquid. Finally, when the forces are at their weakest, the particles can move in any direction, taking the form of a gas.

A diamond is a very rare pure substance found in nature.

Pure substances are a kind of matter that consists of only one particle throughout. In nature, many pure substances exist, such as diamonds, but they can be very difficult to find. Pure substances are often mixed with other substances, by man and in nature, creating matter known as a mixture. For example, many people think that water is pure, but to be safe to drink, we add chemicals and other materials to clean and purify it. To obtain the pure substance, humans take the raw material, and refine and separate out the pure materials. An example of this is in table sugar. Humans take the raw material of sugar beets and sugar cane, and refine it into small granules, creating table sugar.

Upon combining these three ingredients, a mixture will have been created.

A mixture is matter that contains two or more pure substances, creating something new. Most of the substances in the world, natural and manufactured, are mixtures of two or more ingredients. Mixtures can consist of any combination of any type of matter, solid, liquid, or gas. For example, chocolates and fruit juices are representatives of mixtures. The chocolate contains many different materials, cocoa beans, milk, sugar, etc, while the fruit juice contains different fruits, sugar, fructose, etc.

Granola is a perfect example of a heterogeneous mixture, no sample looks the same, and you can see the different ingredients mixed throughout.

Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures in which you can see the different substances mixed throughout. Each sample of the matter looks different, as there are different kinds of substances mixed together. The word "heterogeneous" means different kinds, referring to the use of different materials. A heterogeneous mixture is also known as a mechanical mixture. Examples of a heterogeneous mixture are concrete and granola, when pulled apart, each sample looks different. Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures in which the pure substances used mix together almost completely, making the mixture look as one type of matter. In a homogeneous mixture, you can't see the different materials used. Each sample of the mixture looks the same, no matter the size or quantity of the sample. An example of a homogeneous mixture is melted chocolate, you cannot see the different ingredients inside, like sugar, and cocoa beans.

Good example of how a solution works. Solute dissolves into the solvent, creating a solution.

A solution is the end result of the dissolving of the solutes into the solvent. Solutions can be any type of matter, solid, liquid, and gas, depending on the solute and solvent. A solvent is the substance that dissolves the solutes, creating the solution. In a sugar water mixture, the water would be the solvent, as it dissolves the sugar, creating a solution of sugar water. A solute is the material that is dissolved into the solvent, and upon that dissolving, a solution is made. As seen in the sugar water example above, the sugar would be the solute, since it is dissolved into the water.

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