Coniferous Forest Canada

Climate of the Canadian Coniferous Forest

Average Rainfall- Max=35.4 in. Min= 11.8 in.

Average Temperature- Max=68 degrees fahrenheit Min= - 40 degrees fahrenheit

The Coniferous Forest is mostly made up of Conifers- trees that grow needles and cones instead of leaves and flowers. They have long, cold winters, and short, warm summers. The forest is in high elevations near mountains and lakes in Canada.

Net Primary Productivity

The Boreal Forest (Coniferous Forest) has less than 120 frost free days during growing season. This shows how cold the forest can get. The forest does not receive a large amount of rainfall and covers 22% of the Earth's Land Surface. It also has a smaller Net Primary Productivity than most other ecosystem types, except the desert, tundra, savanna, and grassland.


The soil is strongly leached because of centuries of leaching and impoverished parent materials. They are strongly acidic which means that few animals live in the soil and the turnover of organic matter is slow.

Invasive and Endangered

The Asian Longhorned Beetle is an invasive species in the Canadian forests. They are thought to have come the Americas in shipping crates from China and Korea. They attack and kill maple trees which are all over Canada. The Maple leaf is the symbol on the Canadian flag and is important to the people there. Canadians would love to get rid of these beetles and save their trees.

The wolverine is an endangered species in the Canadian forests. There are less than 50 wolverines left in Canada due to hunting for their frost-resistant fur. This would fit under overexploitation in HIPPCO.

Animals in the Canadian Coniferous Forest

The Canadian Lynx has very thick fur that protects them from the extreme cold. They also have incredible eyesight and can spot a mouse from 250 feet away!

The Moose is one of the largest animals in North America and the largest animal in the deer family. Their antlers help ward off predators and help them survive. The word "Moose" means "twig eater". They are herbivores so they only eat plants.

The Bighorn sheep travel in herds of 5-15 to stay safe. Their horns can weigh up to 30 pounds. The sheep also have butting contests at which they run towards each other at up to 20 miles per hour.

Plants in the Canadian Coniferous Forest

The Jack Pine tree can range from 30-72 feet. Some only grow to be shrub-sized due to poor growing conditions. They usually do not grow straight and result in an irregular shape, similar to some other pines.

The Trembling Aspen tree is also known as the Quaking Aspen, Golden Aspen, and White Poplar tree. Their leaves and fruit provide food for local animals. They also grow up to 65 feet and have different colored leaves and bark.

Caribou Moss is actually a lichen which is made up of algae and fungi. Both algae and fungi provide for each other in a symbiotic relationship. Caribou and Reindeer feed on this moss during the coldest parts of the year which give it its name.

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