One of the causes of the French Revolution was a financial crisis, France was deeply in debt, one of the examples is the king, king Louis XVI, and the queen, Marie Antoinette, she is from Austria. The thing about France and Austria is that they are natural enemies, and since Austria and France are natural enemies, she was unlinked by the French, they would spend large sums of money on lavish parties and luxury clothing, while many of the common people would wear rags. Another example was that France narrowed huge sums of money to spend on wars. While this was happening, the king and his court would still be spending a lot of money on party's , this was leading to more borrowing and debt. By the 1780's, the pattern of borrowing and spending took the country deeply into debt.
Another one of the causes of the French Revolution was the three estates, these were three groups varied broadly across France, in terms of both work and taxes. Their was the first estate, which was made up of the Roman Catholic clergy, this estate made up 1% of the population of France, they had many privileges since the Middle Ages, one of them being only church courts could try priests and bishops for crimes, so the clergy did not have to answer to the same ladws as everyone else. The clergy and the roman Catholic Church didn't have to pay taxes. Then we have the second estate, which was the nobility, they made up about 2% of the population, they controlled most of. The country's wealth. They also paid few taxes. We last have the third estate, which made up 97% of the population, they paid most of the taxes and these peice varied widely across France, some of them being wealthy lawyers and doctors, while others were peasants, and had miserable lives.
It wasn't this that lead to the French Revolution, but it was the voting process that approved taxes to the third estate, and since each estate had only one vote, the first and second estate would usually vote together, out voting the third estate, and while the first and second estate was a small group of people compared to the third estate that was significantly larger than the two, this seemed unfair to the third estate during the voting process.
To decide wether napoleon, was a hero or villain, I would say he is a villain, and there are many reasons why.
One of the reasons why I would consider napoleon a villain rather than a hero is because when he was about to be crowned by the pope, Pope Pius VII, Napoleon grabbed it and placed it on his own head, this action told the world that no one gave Napoleon his authority, he took it for himself. This also shows a sign of selfishness and self centered attitude. Another example would have to be when he quickly conquered Spain and placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne, this shows how much respect he has for other nations, such as Spain, because he didn't get any consent from the Spanish, and the Spanish resented having a foreign ruler, and revolted in 1808. Another example of him being a villain was during the Russian campaign, when he sent 600,000 troops to Russia with him, in the beginning many of the supplies they had was spoiled or lost along the rough roads, with those problems the July heat made the men and horses miserable, many men suffered from disease, desertion, and hunger, thinning out his army. This shows how unprepared he was for the war with Russia, not planning out a sufficient layout before charging to Russia, shows him as a bad and unorganized leader.
That wasn't even the bad part, the thing is, Napoleon didn't know about the winters of Russia, the freezing temperatures killed thousands of his troops. The brutal Russian winter did what no military power had been able to do before. It decimated Napoleons army. What is embarrassing about this is that the congress of Vienna Had to pay a large sum money to other countries to compensate them for the damages, all the borders were pulled back to where they were in 1792, before Napoleon made new borders.
Countries around France negotiated with the congress of Vienna, for redrawing the map to make the new borders of France. For example, a few of the countries, the Dutch republic and the Austrian Netherlands were united as the kingdom of the Netherlands. The congress of Vienna changed many of the national borders to strengthen the nations near France. That way, the nations around France are supposed to Lessen the chance that France would invade its neighbors again. Also, Austria joined with 38 German states to form a loose organization called the German confederation, Great Britain received overseas territories, rather than land in Europe. Redrawing this map required some complicated trades, the countries that helped France lost territory, while those who fought against France gained territory. If one country seemed to be getting too much, it would have to give up something else. The Talleyrand was useful at arranging these trades. At the end, France lost all its gained territory, its boundaries were pulled back to where they were in 1792.