Unit 3 Review: 1814-1915 Chris Jamrog
1. What are the primary contributions of the period to the course of modern history?
During this period imperialism, industrialization, scientific innovation, centralization of future European powers and growing nationalism within Europe. The industrialization of Europe lead to the modern day methods of capitalism and commercial revolution promoting scientific revolutions and population booms in Europe. For example during this period the cottage industry grew, with innovations of the flying Shuttle and spinning mule. The new systems of transportation methods produced by steam power, and trains European trade thrived and produced a population boom that is still present in Europe today. Similarly, new ideals of liberalism, conservatism nationalism and socialism defined a new balance of power of Europe and the create of new Republics and Democracies present today. Also unification of Italy under Cavour and unification of Germany under Prussian Otto van Bismark shaped European physical structure and division into what is is today.
2. If you were a man on the streets during this time period what would be the vocabulary terms you would hear the most?
Some terms that you would hear the most in period 3 is many of the ism of the time, ranging from nationalism, conservatism, liberalism and socialism. On the streets of England some terms that would be heard may include pollution, overcrowding, public health, urban planning, vaccinations, bacteria, sewage systems, trains, industry, factory, cotton, coal and street cars. Some other terms heard around Europe may be prostitution, income inequality, monarchy, middle class, servants, gambling, church, drinking, pubs, marriage, child rearing, women suffrage, Darwin, Marx and white mans burden.
3. What are the greatest political events of the time period?
In the congress of Vienna after the battle of Waterloo the European powers attempted to reinstate the the balance of power by discussing how to deal with the power of France. Following it conservatism dominates, the Austrian minister Metternich dominated discussion, by pushing for a monarchy, emphasize obedience to authority, importance of institutional religion, and against revolutions. It sought to create stability in Europe, and a immediate example was the production of the Holy Alliance between Russia, Prussia and Austria that was christian unity in times of struggle and need. With another immediate impact the Karlsbad decrees were passed outlawing liberal politics in German states and a new confederation based on Napoleons lost territory was created. Another example of a big political event was the National liberation in Greece supported by the romantic artists of the time, and without proper response from ottomans Greece was deemed independent. In Russia, the Decembrist Revolt occurred in response to the death of Czar Alexander I and Nicholas was given control, and tightened his grip of his citizens. In Britain liberal reform lead to many protests against things such as the Corn laws, that increased prices for food and limited the profits of businesses. The Battle of Peterloo occurred, and in response the Reform Bill of 1832 was passed that made the House of Commons to be the most important legislative body, and Rotten Boroughs were eliminated, showing that revolution didn't need to take place for reform to occur. slightly after the revolutions the Crimean War took place for access to the Balkan sea for control of the passage of Dardanelles that Russia wanted for trade. However, Britain saw is as their land and France wanted a military win, this lead to the British embarrassment, Russian reforms, balance of power and Sardinia gained political influence. Italian unification was a product of Cavour who declared war with Austria and gained northern nationalist support, leading to pro-sardinian forces joining Prussia. Similarly, Garibaldi in the South helped unite southern nationalists and conquer the two kingdoms of two sicilies and help unify with Prussia. The German unification under Otton Van Bismark had three phases, the Danish war, Austro-Prussian war, Creation of the Northern German Confederation, EMS dispatch and the Franco-Prussian war, leading to southern unification.
4. What is the prevailing political of the time and who is its spokesman?
Metternich was the dominant speaker of the Congress of Vienna and was an outspoken supporter of conservatism during the time. Under conservatism he preached giving monarchies the power, obedience, institutional religion, no revolutions or uprisings and against nationalism. The dominant speakers of classical liberalism during this period were Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo who pushed for social change and reform of the government, with more power in the hands of the people. Adam smith believed in hands off Laissez Faire economic style were citizens control the market and the government does. Malthus commented on the recent population grow and how the world was reaching carrying capacity and importance of slowing down marriages and amount of children. Ricardo supported the "Iron Law of Wages" were the market should determine prices according to what the demand and supply for the goods or services were.
5. Who are the philosophical spokesmen of the time? What point of view and what, if anything did they write?
Some big philosophers besides the political theorists discussed could include Arthur Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Pavlov and Freud. Arthur discussed the importance of escaping modern day world and to live free, Nietzsche wanted no rules and restrictions and less religion and Pavlov studied the effects of behaviorism and how humans act. This time was mostly characterized by a romanticized era were the emphasis is put on being free and experiencing all things life has to offer like nature and it's beauty.
6. What is the greatest social issue of the time? Who is the leader of the movement and what is the outcome of the movement?
The greatest social issue of the time could be the Liberal reform in Great Britain during the 1830's. Many British individuals felt like they did not have a proper say in the government, and that the government support the interests of the elite, and benefited the elite at their expense. A example of this was the Corn Laws that did not allow the importation of grain, and increased the prices making it more difficult for lower class individuals to survive. In response, the Anti-corn League was made to combat the Six Acts that elimate meetings, and controlled taxing leading to the Battle of Peterloo, and eventually worked with parliament to pass the Reform Bill of 1832. This allowed for the House of Commons to be better representative, remove Rotten Borough areas, increased male suffrage and gave more middle class power, showing social reform could occur without a revolution or government upheaval. Also characterized by the Chartist movement that demanded elites to lose power and fought for universal male suffrage, equal gerrymandering, no land requirements to vote and that parliament would receive wages. Also embodies in the National Liberation in Greece that was romanticized and looked for independence and rights.
7. What is the scientific movement of the time? Who represents the movement and what did he do?
The industrial revolution was the scientific movement of the time and represented a time of consumerism, capitalism, scientific revolution and population grow. The cottage industry had a putting-out system but with industrialization and creation of the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame and spinning mule it could be done significantly more efficiently. This movement was grown by the increasing presence of transportation in Europe, innovation, entrepreneurship, steam power and imperialism. Similarly, during this time the Public Health movement grew significantly and emphasis was put on urban planning, improved sewage systems, vaccines, discovering bacteria, cleaner practices and decreased death rate. Darwin published his theory of evolution, Comte-positivism, Huxley-evolution, social Darwinism, Gobineau-white superiority and Chamberlain-race inferiority of Jews. Atomic theory from Dalton, Mendeleyev-periodic chart, Curie-radium, Thomson-electrons, Planck-quantum theory, Einstein-theory of relativity and Freud and Psychoanalysis.
8. What are the cultural advances or changes of the times? Who are the leaders of the movement?
This time period was characterized by romanticism, impressionism and Post Impressionism. Romanticism was an art movement and in general a cultural movement of the time that emphasized the individual, inspiration and the beauty of nature. Impressionism and post impressionism are characterized by the movement of light and the uses of different colors and sounds to give an impression of some type of movement. Some famous impressionist artist included, van Gogh, Manet, Monet, Rodin, Picasso and Henri Matisse. Famous anthers that embodied romanticism during the 19th century included Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Gustav Flaubert and Anatole France. In general though culturally during the 19th century it could be described as high culture dominated by the wealthy elite that valued manners, dressing well, dinner parties, plays, operas and musicals. Also during this time there was a clear and defined divide between the middle class and elite class, with increased emphasis on real love and working in the middle class compared to the elite who valued a shared code of behavior and morality and many other leisure activities.