South Africa pages 377-396

Land-forms and bodies of water

South of the Kalahari Desert, much of the land

  • plateaus
  • escarpment
  • deserts
  • mountains

bodies of water

  • zambezi
  • limpopo
  • orange

Which type of land form is common in southern Africa?

enscarpments

tropical zones

The Tropic of Capricorn crosses the middle of Southern Africa. This places the northern half of the region in the Tropics. Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate.

temperature zones

Much of South Africa, central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and southern Mozambique have temperate, or modern, climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature.

desert regions

Western South Africa, western Namibia, and much of Botswana are arid. Along the coast, the Namib gets very little rain.

Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot?

because they are so high in elevation that they have cooler temperatures.

Natural Resources

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?

  1. Resources
  2. gems and diamonds
  3. oil and natural gas
  4. rivers and streams (hydroelectric power)
  5. fertile farming ground

they are so important because they help support the region (Southern Africa).

The Republic of South Africa has some of the largest mineral reserves in the world. It is the worlds largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producers of diamonds-both gems and industrial diamonds, or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools. These resources, along with important deposits of coal, iron ore, uranium, copper, and other minerals.

Energy resources

The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power. Mozambique has large deposits of natural gas as well, as does Angola. Angola is also one of Africa's leading oil producers. The region's rivers are another resource for providing power.
Namibia is one of Africa's richest countries in mineral resources. It is an important producer of tin, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and uranium.
Southern Africa is known for its variety of animals. Wildebeests, lions, zebras, giraffes, and many other animals are found across the region.

Lesson 2

History of south Africa-Rise of kingdoms

Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.
Around the year A.D 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The capital was a city called Great Zimbabwe.
In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and the Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique. Like the Great Zimbabwe, the Mutapa Empire thrived on the gold it mined and traded for goods from China and India.
The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800s to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa. A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the land of Madagascar from the 1600s to the 1800s.

European Colonies

Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.
During the 1600s till about the 1800s, Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies, which are large territories with settlers from the home country.
Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800s.
In 1884 representatives of these countries met in Berlin, Germany, to divide the continent among themselves.

Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's? France

Independence and equal rights

French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.
Angola and Mozambique became independent countries in 1975 as a result.
After granting Malawi and Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe, then called Southern Rhodesian.
After independence, the growth of South Africa's mining and other industries depended on the labor of black Africans, who greatly outnumbered the country's whites.

Lesson 3

the population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.
Southern Africa's countries vary widely in population. Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland. South Africa, which surrounds both of them, has the region's largest population-about 49 million.
Africans are not a single people, Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages. One group, the Shona, makes up more than 80 percent of the population of the country Zimbabwe. South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethnic group.
Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people religious beliefs. In almost every country, most of the people are Christians.

The main religion practiced in Africa is Christianity.

Life in Southern Africa

As in other regions in Africa, life differs from city to countryside.
Although most people in the regions of Southern Africa live in the countryside, migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.
The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities-services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution. The regions cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures.Johannesburg's role as a mining, manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.
people who move to the cities must adjust to new experiences and a different way of life. Rural villages are often small-consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses. In many cultures, all the people in a village are related by blood or marriage to the villages headman or chief.

Southern Africa today

Southern Africa's wealth and minerals, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.
Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low.
Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.
Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroad, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed after years of civil war. Tourism at national parks has grown with the established of stable, democratic governments.
The united states has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.

It is so low because of diseases and other health related issues.

Created By
Makena Matthews
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