Up-Cycling vs Down-Cycling
- Up-Cycling- reuse (discarded objects or material) in such a way as to create a product of a higher quality or value than the original.
- Down-Cycling- breaking an item down into its component elements or materials. Once the constituent elements or materials are recovered, they are reused if possible but usually as a lower-value product
O: The O horizon is a surface horizon that is comprised of organic material at various stages of decomposition. It is most prominent in forested areas where there is the accumulation of debris fallen from trees.
A: The A horizon is a surface horizon that largely consists of minerals (sand, silt, and clay) and with appreciable amounts of organic matter. This horizon is predominantly the surface layer of many soils in grasslands and agricultural lands.
E: The E horizon is a subsurface horizon that has been heavily leached. Leaching is the process in which soluble nutrients are lost from the soil due to precipitation or irrigation. The horizon is typically light in color. It is generally found beneath the O horizon.
B: The B horizon is a subsurface horizon that has accumulated from the layer(s) above. It is a site of deposition of certain minerals that have leached from the layer(s) above.
C: The C horizon is a subsurface horizon. It is the least weathered horizon. Also known as the saprolite, it is unconsolidated, loose parent material.
6 Soil Properties
- Porosity- How much empty space is in soil
- Permeability- How fast water flows through soil
- Infiltration- Water moving down
- Shrink & Swell- Soil expand or contract
- Water holding capacity- How much water it holds on to & how well
- Erodibility- How much the water is eroded by air
- Sand- Gritty feel, seen with naked eye
- Silt- Dust, powder smooth feel, slippery when wet, seen with hand lens
- Clay- Hard when dry, when wet is sticky, can be seen with electron microscope
Micro and Macro
- Micro-nutrients are those elements that plants need in small amounts (sometimes trace-amounts)
- Macro-nutrients are those elements that are needed in relatively large amounts
- Fertilizers promote plant growth and green lawns by helping plants meet their nutrient needs.
- Overuse or misuse of fertilizers can lead to excess nutrients such as nitrates, contaminating water supply
- Nutrients phosphorus and potassium are applied to the land in the form of fertilizer
Properties of Water
- Water is transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluid of most living organisms.
- Water is called the "Universal Solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid
- That means wherever the water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals and nutrients
Types of Water Pollution
- Surface Water Pollution - is the most visible form of pollution and we can see it floating on our waters in lakes, streams, and oceans
- Ground Water Pollution- is usually caused by high toxic chemicals and pesticides from farming that leak through the ground and contaminate the wells and aquifers below the surfaces.
- Microbiological pollution- is the natural form of water pollution that is caused by microorganism is uncured water
- Oxygen Depletion Pollution- water bodies have microorganisms. Which include aerobic and anaerobic organisms. When it is too much biodegradable matter things that easily decay end up in the water
- Nutrient Pollution- Are usually found in wastewater and fertilizers
- Suspended Matter Pollution- Occurs when pollution enters the water and does not mix in with the water molecules
- All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
- All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
- Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
- A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Ions and Ionic Compounds
- Ions are atoms on a group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
- Anions gained electrons and is a negative charge
- Cations lost and electrons and is a positive charge