Skyfall, Wide Shot: The purpose of a wide shot is to show where the characters are at.
Oblivion, Close Up: A close up is shoulders up and can be used to show details.
Hero, Long Shot: This is where the whole body is shown.
Inception, Medium Shot: Medium shot is from the waist up and is used to show the characters body language or emotion.
Lawrence of Arabia, Low Angle: Low angle is when the camera is pointed up at the subject, its used to make the subject look strong and powerful.
Skyfall, Extreme Close-up: It's a close up of a feature, this is used to show characteristics or emotions.