40. Labour Party (Great Britain): 1900, Labour Party formed to protect and advocate for workers interests and social welfare programs
41. Constitution of 1875 (France): solidified the Third Republic, which lasted sixty-five years. It established a republican form of government. This constitution established a bicameral legislature, with an upper house, the Senate, elected indirectly and a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, chosen by universal male suffrage. The premier (or prime minister) led the government, and he and his ministers were responsible not to the president but to the Chamber of Deputies.
42. Emperor William II (Germany): Authoritarian, conservative, military-bureaucratic state. He calls for overseas expansion. "a place in the sun" for the German people. Strong German Nationalism. Anti-Semitism – hostility and discrimination towards Jews
43. Tsar Nicholas II: successor to Alexander III. (1894– 1917), began his rule with his father's conviction that the absolute power of the tsars should be preserved: “I shall maintain the principle of autocracy just as firmly and unflinchingly as did my unforgettable father.” He granted civil liberties and agreed to create a legislative assembly, the Duma, elected directly by a broad franchise. But real constitutional monarchy proved short-lived. Already by 1907, the tsar had curtailed the power of the Duma and relied again on the army and bureaucracy to rule Russia.
44. Triple Alliance: The Triple Alliance of 1882 committed Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy to unite in their defense against France
45. Triple Entente: Triple Entente of Great Britain, Russia, and France.