What Are Hydrological Disasters And How Can They Occur?
A hydrological disaster is a disaster which occurs in relation to water. They can occur in the forms of trapped gasses being suddenly released from the depths of the ocean or lakes, spontaneous change in water quality and the movement or distribution of water in the atmosphere and above or below the earth's surface.
Flash flooding will usually be caused by heavy rain fall, snow melting or a dam breakage which causes overflow in an area. Generally flash floods tend to last short periods of time, hence the name "flash" however these floods can last from 5 minutes to 6 hours long. Flash floods are also the most damaging and fatal type of flooding, ripping through towns and destroying anything in their path, they happen with no warning.
1) In the U.S all 50 states are susceptible to flash floods. 2)Flooding is the most common natural disaster alongside wild fires. In 2014 the President of the U.S declared that about 90% of natural disasters that occurred that year involved some sort of flooding. 3) Floods can cause disease outbreaks. Flood waters contain several dangerous and hazardous materials from untreated sewage waters, building debris and fuel. So after the water diminishes we are exposed to these harmful materials.
One of the rarest types of natural disasters are Limnic eruptions, with only 2 confirmed occurrences. Limnic eruptions occur deep in the ocean where there's magma, originally scientist thought these eruptions were caused by volcanic activity but then concluded that limnic eruptions happen when magma produces too much carbon dioxide and due to the intense pressure from the depth of the ocean, the built up CO2 is suddenly released causing an extreme and fatal explosion.
1) There have only been 2 confirmed limnic eruptions. First one was back in 1984, in Lake Monoun there was a limnic eruption causing 37 fatalities. The second was at a lake near by in 1986, Lake Nyos. This eruption was extremely devastating with 1,700-1,800 fatalities. 2) The reason limnic eruptions are so fatal is because of all the CO2 gas that's being released into the air, when the two eruptions happened the explosions asphyxiated anything in a 25km radius. 3) In the photo behind this text you can see what scientists created to avoid these dangerous limnic eruptions, these tubes go all the way down to the bottom of the lake and allows the CO2 to be released before it builds up too much.
My last example of a hyrdological disaster is Tsunamis. Tsunamis are giant waves that are usually caused by the movement of tectonic plates (underwater earthquakes) they can also be caused by landslides, underwater volcanic activity and even limnic eruptions. Tsunamis are also referred as Tidal waves, theses waves can travel up to 800km in deep waters but when arriving to shore, it quickly slows down due to the shallow waters. However when it hits shore the waves start travelling faster on the surface and extremely slow underneath this causes the wave to dramatically increase in height, Tsunamis have been known to reach up to 30 metres in height but commonly tsunamis only reach 3 metres in height.
Tsunamis can travel as fast as a commercial jet in deep waters. "The most damaging tsunami on record before 2004 was the one that killed an estimated 40,000 people in 1782 following an earthquake in the South China Sea." About 80% of tsunamis happen within the Pacific Ocean’s “Ring of Fire.”
This is the end of my Hydrological Disasters project, I hope you learned some new facts about these types of disasters and enjoyed this presentation.
Created with images by roberthuffstutter - "ONE OF THE MOST IGNORANT TESTS EVER--NOT MY PHOTO" • Hans - "high water flooding park bench" • Hans - "high water park bench flooded" • simonallardice - "Erupting" • hansol - "tsunami" • cluczkow - "ocean"