Biology and Its History

1865 - Gregor Mendel shows that characteristics of pea plants are passed along in a predictable way. This begins the study of genetics.

1903 - Walter Sutton shows that chromosomes carry inheritance.

1911 - Thomas Hunt Morgan demonstrates the genes are arranged in a linear fashion on the chromosomes of the fruit fly.

1928 - Frederick Griffith discovers that bacteria contain a molecule that can transfer genetic information from cell to cell.

1944 - Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, and Maclyn McCarty show that the substance that Griffith discovered is DNA.

1950 - Erwin Chargaff analyzes the bass composition of DNA in cells. He discovers that the amount of adenine and find thymine are almost always equal, as are the amounts of guanine and cytosine.

1952 - Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirm that the genetic material of viruses is DNA, not protein. Rosalina Franklin records a critical x-ray diffraction pattern, demonstrating that DNA is in the form of a helix.

1953 - James Watson and Francis Crick publish their model of the DNA double helix. The matter was made possible by Franklin's work.

2000 - Craig Venter and Francis Collins announce the draft a DNA sequence of the human genome at the White House ceremony in Washington, DC. The final version is published in 2003.

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