Earthquake Project By:Richie Mastrodicasa

The earthquake I chose occurred on November 22, 1995 in Egypt. The earthquake was 7.2 magnitude and occurred at depth of 10 kilometers. The earthquake caused an enormous amount of damage to the surrounding areas and effected thousands of people's lives forever. Although the epicenter of the Earthquake was in the Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt was the country that was most heavily affected.

The image above shows the recent earthquakes in the area that my earthquake occurred in. It also shows the magnitude of these earthquake and the type of boundary it occurred on. Based on this image, we can see that the earthquake of 1995 occurred on a transform boundary. The earthquake occurred on the Dead Sea Transform fault system.
This image also displayed the earthquakes that have occurred in recent years in the surrounding area. The star is the epicenter of the earthquake that occurred on November 22 of 1995. This tectonic zone is a transform boundary, which means that the two plates are moving along each other in the opposite direction of the other plate. The Arabic plate is moving at 14mm per year, while the African plate is moving at only 10mm per year. This over the years cause rocks to get stuck and the plates did not move freely, and these points then build up stress and when they release it causes an earthquake, which is what happened in the case of this earthquake.
Above is an image of the seismograph information from the earthquake that happened in Egypt of 1995. This is from a seismograph station that was located in Kislovodsk, Russia. The difference between the S and P waves arrival times if calculated. Then, this is compared to a graph that will tell scientists how far the epicenter was from the station. They then do this with two more seismic stations, and the point where all three circles overlap is where the epicenter is located. This process is called triangulation.
The image above is a model that shows the slip in meter that occurred at the surrounding areas around the epicenter. It allows one to see how much the ground and surrounding area actually slipped in terms of meters, with some areas being as high as three meters. It also shows the depth in kilometers that the slip occurred at.
This image is an picture of a three story building that collapsed from the earthquake. It displayed just how dangerous this earthquake was, and also allows one to see how that high of a magnitude earthquake can easily destroy buildings and entire towns.

About Egypt, the geography, and the people that were affected

Major mountains include Mt. Sinai and Jabal Umm ad Dami. Also, the gulf of Aqaba was where the epicenter was located. The gulf of suez was where the epicenter of the earthquake was and the Red Sea is the major body of water that the Gulf of Aqaba connects to. There is also the Jabal al-Lawz mountain range just to the east of the epicenter in Saudi Arabia. Major cities that were closest to the epicenter include Nuwaybi‘a, Egypt, Aqaba, Jordan,Eilat, Israel, Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt and El-Tor, Egypt. The total population of all of these cities is 172, 608 people. In Egypt they have hot and dry summers with moderate winters. Most of Egypt is composed of deserts or desert like land, making fertile land to grow crops hard to find, and the amount of land used for agriculture in Egypt is 3.6%. They do have a lot of natural resources including petroleum, natural gas and iron ore. Most Egyptinans, 95%, live on or near the Nile river because most of the land is desert but their is a narrow strip of fertile land that runs along the Nile, leaving many areas of Egypt scarcely populated or not inhabited at all. Almost all of the population, 96% is Egyptian. The language most commonly used is Arabic, but many educated individuals speak English and French as well. The most common ages are 0-14 years old, which is 33.21% of the total population. The other most common age span is 25-54 years old, which accounts for 37.47% of the population. Lastly, the most common religion in Egypt is Muslim, with 90% of the population practicing the religion. Because most of Egypt's population consists of poor famers, their has been very limited action taken to try and prevent earthquakes because people do not have the money to afford houses that can withstand earthquakes. We do see many of the major buildings in cities such as Cairo are built to withstand earthquakes, but for most of the population their has been almost nothing done to help them and prevent loss of life. This is also due to the fact that many of the people who live along the Nile, those areas and villages are very basic, and it would cost millions to put structures in place to protect those people.

Damage and Rebuild

From this earthquake their was very limited deaths because Egypt in the area that it occurred is scarcely populated. The earthquake cause at least 8 known fatalities and 30 injuries in the town of Nuwaybi. One more person was killed and two were injured in Al Bad, Saudi Arabia. As far as destruction goes, their was many buildings that were taken down and even many of the concrete constructed buildings that were reinforced to survive earthquakes were taken down. Then, their were smaller after shocks, many of which were still 5.0 magnitude or higher, which happened as late as a year after the initial earthquake. Also, it is reported that a small tsunami hit Aqaba, Jordan, but it did not cause any significant damage. The relief strategies used were very minimal because the loss of life and injuries were minimal for this large of an earthquake, so therefore no international organizations got involved. Egypt did use search and rescue teams on a small scale to go out and rescue the injuries people and then either flew or drove them back to hospitals for medical treatment. Lastly, Egypt has not taken any significant steps to improve earthquake recovery because they happen so often that many citizens and medical personal are able to adapt to these situation very quickly, because they happen very frequently. But, they have since made efforts to make almost all of the new buildings earthquake resistant to make sure that major cities that contain most of Egypt's population is safe, and they are also trying to protect economic resources as much as possible because the more loss of life and buildings that collapse, the more money it is going to cost the country to repair all of the lost materials. So, Egypt is making advancements to make sure that the buildings in all of the major cities will withstand major earthquakes.

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