THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE
• Northern traditions were mixed with ideas of the Renaissance from Italy, creating the Northern Renaissance.
• The idea of individuality created by the Renaissance were expressed by Humanist writers.
•The Northern Renaissance was represented through works of art by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.
• One of the most famous German artists who traveled to Italy to bring ideas of the Renaissance back to his homeland was Albrecht Durer.
• Many of Durer's woodcuts or engravings portray religion, myths, or realistic scenes.
• Holbein, also known as Hans Holbein the Younger, was another German artist who followed in the footsteps of Durer.
• Unlike Durer, Holbein specialized in photographic paintings, and later moved to England to paint the Royal family (King Henry VIII etc.)
• One of the first well-known Flemish Renaissance artists had come to be known as Van Eyck.
• By layering paint to create a variety of colors, Van Eyck created oil paints that were also used in clothing and jewels. Eyck inspired oil painting throughout Europe.
• Pieter Bruegel the Elder was an artist which had an interest in details, and individualism. One of his best skills was capturing a large quantity of people in his works.
• Life was clearly shown through vivid colors in details within Bruegel's art. He liked to paint scenes from everyday peasant life. (weddings, market, etc.)
• Desiderius Erasmus, a Christian humanist from Holland was one of the best known humanists of the time period.
• Erasmus' novel, The Praise of Folly represented Christianity through the heart; something felt without rules or ceremonies. It was also made to improve society by having all people study the Bible.
QUOTE: "What difference is there, do you think, between those in Plato's cave who can only marvel at the shadows and images of various objects, provided they are content and don't know what they miss, and the philosopher who has emerged from the cave and sees the real things?" -Desiderius Erasmus
• Another Christian Humanist by the name of Christian More tried to improve society along with Erasmus by writing the book, Utopia.
• More's idea of a utopia; an imaginary land where greed, corruption, and war don't exist, has been come to known as an ideal place that More was describing.
QUOTE: "Gold and silver, of which money is made, are so treated . . . that no one values them more highly than their true nature deserves. Who does not see that they are far inferior to iron in usefulness since without iron mortals cannot live any more than without fire and water?" -Thomas More Utopia
CHRISTINE DE PIZAN
• Christine de Pizan was one of the first Christian writers to speak out about the lacking equality between men and women.
• Christine de Pizan was also one of the fist women to earn a living by writing, and was highly educated; something that most women were in need of.
• In French, Christine wrote short stories, biographies, novels, and military manuals. In The Book of the City of Ladies, she wrote out her feelings of being objected as a woman.