Temperature vs. Heat
Laws of Thermodynamics
- Matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
- Entropy is always increasing.
- Absolute 0 is impossible to reach
- Energy moves from high to low
Calories and specific heat
- Calories: Units of energy.
- 1 Calorie= 4.814 Joules
- Q is the change of energy and means heat.
Up-cycling vs Down-cycling
Types of Plastics and Issues
- Aluminum- Closed loop recycling.
- Paper- Must be down-cycled.
- Glass- Takes a lot of energy to make.
- Plastic- Most important thing to be recycled, but must be down-cycled.
Recycling Metals and Papers
- Paper: Every time paper is recycled, the fibers get smaller. As the fibers get smaller, it gets down-cycled into tissues and other things.
- Metals: Aluminum can be recycled and not go to waste. Iron and steel are the most recycled materials and among the easiest materials to reprocess.
Sand, Silt, and Clay
- Sand- Little rocks seen by human eye.
- Silt- See with microscope or magnifying glass.
- Clay- Atom size in order to see clay.
Issues with Soil and Soil Properties
Issues: In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. These impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity. These are very real and at times severe issues.
- 6 Properties:
- Porosity- Air in soil
- Permeability- How easy things move through soil
- Infiltration- Downward movement of water
- Shrink or Swell- How much the soil expands
- Water Holding Capacity- Amount of water that a given soil can hold
- Erodability- How easy is eroded by water and air
Micro and Macro
- Macro-nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg)
- Micro-nutrients (or trace minerals): boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni).
- Two Types:
- Organic- Plant and animal waste
- Inorganic- Manufactured or mined
Deficiencies and Toxicities
- Burning: severe localized yellowing;scorched appearance.
- Chlorosis: general yellowing of the plant tissue; lack of chlorophyll.
- Generalized: symptoms not limited to one area of a plant, but rather spread over the entire plant.
- Immobile nutrient: not able to be moved from one part of the plant to another.
- Interveinal Chlorosis: yellowing in between leaf veins, yet veins remain green.
- Localized: symptoms limited to one leaf or one section of the leaf or plant.
- Mobile nutrient: able to be moved from one plant part to another.
- Mottling: spotted, irregular,inconsistent pattern.
- Necrosis: death of plant tissue; tissue browns and dies.
- Stunting: decreased growth; shorter height of the affected plants.
Properties of Water
- Its attraction to polar molecules.
- High-specific heat.
- High heat of vaporization.
- The lower density of ice.
- High polarity.
Types of Water Pollution
- Nutrient Pollution
- Surface Water Pollution
- Oxygen Depleting
- Oil Spillage
There is more types of water pollution such as suspended matter, chemical water pollution, ground water pollution, etc.
- Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting biological growth
- Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese
- Coagulation for flocculation or slow-sand filtration
- Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes – to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation
- Sedimentation for solids separation that is removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc
- Filtration to remove particles from water
- Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens.
Tissue of large, highly vacuolate cells with relatively extensible walls, which can buffer the water supply. Water can also be stored in tree trunks, as in tracheids which can be emptied and refilled.
Atoms and Ions
Ions- A group of atoms with a positive or a negative charge.
- Cashions- Lost electron(s), so positively charged
- Anions- A negative charge because gained electrons
- A metal and a non-metal combined
- The charges cancel each other out and add up to equal 0.
- Positives are always written first