1. Macartney Mission - The Macartney Embassy occured in 1793 when Earl Macartney was sent from Britain to China on a mission to settle some trade agreements with the Emperor. After failing to complete the traditional Kowtow, Macartney presented the Emperor with a series of industrialised trinkets that the pre-industrialised Chinese refused to accept.
2. First Opium War - The first Opium War lasted from 1839-1842 and was entirely dominated by the British who had iron-hulled steam warships compared to the wooden ships the Chinese had as they insisted they did not need any of the modernised items from the West. This was due to their strict tradition and Confucious values.
3. Second Opium War - After a dramatic defeat of the Chinese, the second Opium War occured from 1856-1860, again dominated by the British. After having signed a devastating unfair treaty after the first Opium War, China was already at a disadvantage. All that was achieved was in Britain and France's favour giving them more control and power over China.
4. Boxer Rebellion - The Boxer Rebellion in 1899-1901 was fought between the Boxers, Red Lanterns, Qing dynasty and other foreign forces. This left China in an even worse state after the trade of opium and silver weakened the current dynasty. At the end of the Boxer rebellion, the Qing dynasty had lost control after the death of the last Emperor and became a republic.