Correctly identify biomes on the Whittaker diagram based on their average temperature and annual precipitation.
Label biomes on a map of the world.
List the major characteristics, identify growing seasons, and unique terms that apply to the following biomes and the reasons behind the characteristics.
Location: Northernmost Hemisphere in Russia, Canada, Scandinavia and Alaka.
Weather: Typically very cold. Usually below 5 degrees Celsius. With the weather, there is a four month growing season and low precipitation rates.
Species: Small woody shrubs, mosses, heaths, and lichens.
Location: Found between 50 and 60 degrees north as well as Europe, Russia, and North America.
Weather: The weather in boreal forests are characterized by long cold winters, short growing seasons, and low precipitation rates.
Species: Coniferious evergreens, birch, maple, and aspen woods.
Temperate Seasonal Forests:
Location: China, Japan, Chile, Eastern US, and Australia.
Weather: Warm summers and colder winters compared to temperate rainforests. Heavily influenced from ocean. Typically have long growing seasons.
Species: Broadleaf deciduous trees, oak, hickory, and maple trees.
Location: East Coast of Australia, West Coast of New Zealand, and West coast of North America.
Weather: Typically higher precipitation rates. Mild, foggy summers and rainy winters. All year growing season due to ocean currents from the coast.
Species: Costal redwoods, spruce, mainly coniferous trees.
Location: Coast of Southern California, Southwestern Australia, surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Weather: All year growing season. Low precipitation rates in the summer and low temperatures in the winter causes issues with plant growth.
Species: Drought resistant shrubs, grapes for wine
Location: Great plains in North America, South America, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia.
Weather: Cold, harsh winters. Hot and dry summers with low precipitation rates. Long growing seasons.
Species: Non-woody flowering plants that are adapted to wild fires. Grasses. Major issues with wildfires in this area prevents trees from growing.
Location: Central and South America, Large Tropical island, and northeastern Australia.
Weather: Very warm and wet with small temperature variation throughout the seasons and large amounts of precipitation coming from the ITCZ. All year growing season.
Species: Lots of vegetation including canopies, vines, and epiphytes.
Location: Sahara Desert, Mojave Desert, Arabian Desert, and the Great Victorian Desert
Weather: Extremely hot and dry conditions with no growing season.
Species: Very little vegetation however, things like cacti, euphorbs, and succulents can survive.
Explain the properties of a rivers and streams that make it different than a lake.
Rivers and streams (lotic systems) are characterized by moving water. An increase in volume or depth of a river, or a steepening of its gradient, will result in an increase in its velocity as well.
The main difference between rivers and streams compared to lakes is water movement. You can easily tell if a body of water is a river because its moving in a general direction while a lake looks still.
Another difference would be the appearance. Lakes are usually enclosed by land They are also not connected to the seas or oceans, because they are inland. Conversely, rivers are bodies of water with land masses, or long stretches of land bordering their sides.
Label the parts of a lake and the properties of each part.
Littoral Zone - the shallow area of soil and water near the shore where algae and emergent plants such as cattails grow. Most photosynthesis occurs at this zone.
Limnetic Zone - In the open water. Rooted plants can no longer survive here and floating algae called phytoplankton are the only photosynthetic organisms. The limnetic zone extends as deep as sunlight can penetrate.
Profundal Zone - The profundal zone is the zone below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes. Due to the profundal zone not having any sunlight, producers cannot survive there, so nutrients are not easily recycled into the food web. Bacteria decompose the detrius that reaches the profundal zone, but they consume oxygen in the process.
Benthic Zone - This is the muddy bottom of a lake or pond beneath the limnetic and profundal zones.
Identify the different types of wetlands and the vital roles wetlands play in the environment.
There are a variety of different places that can be classified as a wetland.
Coastal wetlands, shallow lakes and ponds, bogs, marshes, swamps, and estuaries are all different types of wetlands.
Freshwater wetlands are among the most productive biomes on the planet, and they provide several critical ecosystem services. For example, wetlands can take in large amounts of rain water and release it slowly into the groundwater or into nearby streams, thus reducing the severity of floods and droughts. Wetlands also filter pollutants from water, recharging the ground-water with clean water.
Identify the unique properties of salt marshes and their importance to the greater environment.
Salt marshes are found along the coast in the temperate climates and they are one of the most productive biomes in the world.
Many salt marshes are found in estuaries, which are areas along the coast where the fresh water of rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean. Because rivers carry large amounts of nutrient-rich organic material, estuaries are extremely productive places for plants and algae, and abundant plant life helps filter contaminants out of the water.
Salt marshes are very important to the greater environment because they provide an important place for spawning fish and shellfish; two-thirds of marine life and shellfish spend time in estuaries.
Explain the importance of mangroves to coastlines.
Mangrove swamps occur along tropical and subtropical coasts, and like freshwater swamps, contain trees whose roots are submerged in water. They are important to coastlines because they provide a sheltered habitat for fish and shellfish.
Identify the types of organisms that live in an intertidal zone and explain why those organisms must have unique adaptations.
An intertidal zone is the narrow band of coastline that exists between the levels of high tide and low tide.
Environmental conditions are fairly stable during high tide for the intertidal zone. However, during low tide, organisms can be exposed to hard conditions like high temperatures, direct sunlight, and desiccation. Due to these conditions, species like crabs, algae, mussels, and sea stars must have unique adaptations to survive.
Explain the importance of coral reefs to humans.
Coral reefs provide a variety of services to humans. They protect coastlines from the damaging effects of wave action and tropical storms, they assist in carbon and nitrogen fixing, and they also help with nutrient recycling.
The fishing industry also depends on coral reefs because many fish spawn there and spend time before heading to the open sea.
Describe the organisms that makeup coral and also the diversity of other organisms in the reef.
Coral Reefs, which are found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline, represent Earth's most diverse marine biome.
Corals are tiny animals that secrete a layer of limestone to form an external skeleton which eventually die. Its the skeleton of the corals left behind that actually for the coral reefs.
A tremendous diversity of other organisms, including fish and invertebrates, use the structure of the reef as both a refuge in which to live and find a place to find food.
At The Great Barrier Reef there are more than 400 species of coral, 1500 species of tropical fish, and 200 species of birds.
Explain what coral bleaching is, what causes it, and what its effects would be if it occurs.
Coral bleaching is a phenomenon in which the algae inside the corals die. Because of the lack of algae, the coral dies as well and turns white.
Scientists believe that coral bleaching is occurring from a mixture of diseases and environmental changes including lower ocean pH and abnormally high water temperatures.
Coral bleaching is a serious problem for the reason that without the corals, the entire coral reef biome is endangered.
Label the zones of the open ocean and list the properties of each zone.
Photic Zone - upper layer of ocean water that recieves enough sunlight to allow photosynthesis. Here, algae are major producers. They form the base of a food web that includes tiny zoo-plankton, fish, and whales.
Aphotic Zone - Deeper layer of water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis. Due to the lack of photosynthesis there are no photosynthetic producers. Here, instead of photosynthesis, they under Chemosynthesis, a process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
Friedland, Andrew, and Rick Relyea. "Chapter 4." Environmental Science for AP. 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman, 2015. 103-140. Print.
Queensland Museum: http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/microsites/biodiscovery/05human-impact/importance-of-coral-reefs.html
EO Earth: www.eoearth.org/view/article/155233/
Difference Between: http://www.differencebetween.net/science/nature/difference-between-river-and-lake/#ixzz4V1Ix4KT2