Inferior Courts- a court of limited jurisdiction, and it must appear on the face of its proceedings that it has jurisdiction, or its proceedings.
Precedent- a legal decision or form of proceeding serving as an authoritative rule or pattern in future similar or analogous cases.
Grand Jury- a jury, normally of twenty-three jurors, selected to examine the validity of an accusation before trial.
Jurisdiction- the official power to make legal decisions and judgments.
Concurring Opinion- a written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different (or additional) reasons as the basis for his or her decision.
Dissenting Opinion- an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
Indictment- a formal charge or accusation of a serious crime.
Plaintiff- a person who brings a case against another in a court of law.
Defendant- an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
Double Jeopardy- the prosecution of a person twice for the same offense.
Majority Opinion- a judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court.
Miranda Rule- a concept in criminal law that applies to police interrogations of person who have been taken into custody.
Exclusive Jurisdiction- power of a court to adjudicate a case to the exclusion of all other courts. It is the sole forum for determination of a particular type of case.
Redress- to set right, relief or remedy or a means of seeking relief or remedy.
Bail- the temporary release of an accused person awaiting trial, sometimes on condition that a sum of money be lodged to guarantee their appearance in court.
Original Jurisdiction- the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
Capital Punishment- the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime.
Appellate Jurisdiction- the power of a higher court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.
Concurrent Jurisdiction- the ability to exercise judicial review by different courts at the same time, within the same territory, and over the same subject matter.
Civil Liberties- the state of being subject only to laws established for the good of the community, especially with regard to freedom of action and speech.
Exclusionary Rule- a law that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial.
Segregation- the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
Civil Rights- the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.
Jim Crow Law- the former practice of segregating black people in the US.
Separate-But-Equal Doctrine- a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted in 1868, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
Writ of Certiorari- A type of writ, meant for rare use, by which an appellate court decides to review a case at its discretion.
Writ of Habeas Corpus- a court order to a person or agency holding someone in custody (such as a warden) to deliver the imprisoned individual to the court issuing the order and to show a valid reason for that person's detention.