Selective Breeding By Emma Kimball, Alexa Formato, Madigan Linnane PEriod 4

What is selective breeding?

Selecting organisms producing offspring with favorable characteristics

Has to do with inherited traits

Breeders choose parents with favorable dominant traits

The offspring then have these desired traits

Can be with any organism (plants/animals)

Is manipulated by man

How it began:

-Began 10,000 years ago

-People selected animals/plants with favorable traits

-Realized generations were stronger than the previous

-Discovered this was due to inherited genes

Why Selective Breeding?

-Selective breeding is used today

-Breeders select best organisms to produce offspring

-Allows humans to manipulate the course of nature

-Better animals and plants are the outcome

Darwin and Selective Breeding:

-Charles Darwin worked with selective breeding

-He used it to prove evolution

-Darwin selectively bred birds

-He watched the inherited genes of birds

-Favorable inherited genes allowed for survival

-Artificial and natural selection worked the same

How it works...

-Breeders pick two plants/animals same species

-Organisms with dominant alleles for favorable genes

-Resulting offspring has these traits

-Hybrids: contain combination of indifferent genes from parents

-In-breeding: related animals are bred

-Cross-breeding: Animals are bred from two breeds

Punnett Square:

-Probability of the outcoming phenotype and genotype

-Visual models

-Phenotype = physical traits (appearance)

-Genotype = genetic make up

-Homozygous (same alleles) or heterozygous (different alleles)

-Incomplete dominance = dominant cannot fully overcome recessive

-Codominance = both characteristics of parents are seen

Pros to Selective Breeding:

-Increases rate of production

-Benefits organisms in having better traits

-Higher profit

-Can actually save ecosystems (ex: coral reefs)

Cons:

-Animal cruelty

-In-breeding Depression: nonfavorable genes are lost

-Loss of diversity

-Inheritance of harmful genes

Public Opinion:

-There are ethical downsides to selective breeding

-New Massachusetts laws against animal cruelty

-Some believe man should not manipulate nature

-People do not like its expenses

-Others state it poses no threat

Modern Results of Selective Breeding:

-Exotic animals are often selectively bred

-Domesticated animals were selectively bred

-Fishing regulations selectively breed smaller fish

-Pure bred dogs and cats

-Corn bred to be larger/grow faster

-Cows selectively bred to produce milk efficiently

Works Cited

"Selective Breeding - Genetics and Evolution." Selective Breeding - Biology Online. Biology Online, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Occupytheory.org."Advantages and Disadvantages of Selective Breeding." OccupyTheory. N.p., 08 May 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

Carol, Max. "What Is Selective Breeding?" TreeHugger. N.p., 07 July 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Selective Breeding." Animal Sciences. Encyclopedia.com, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Selective Breeding or Artificial Selection." Selective Breeding or Artificial Selection. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Advantages and Disadvantages of Selective Breeding." OccupyTheory. N.p., 08 May 2015. Web. 11 Dec. 2016.

"Why Are Today's Chickens Huge Compared To Chickens In The Past? Researchers Explain." Opposingviews.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

Parson & Jack Russell Terrier International. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"How Artificial Selection Helped Prove Darwin's Theory." About.com Education. N.p., 18 Apr. 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Punnet Square Practice Page." Punnet Square Practice Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

PelletierTeach. "Gregor Mendel's Punnett Squares." YouTube. YouTube, 06 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

"Beginner Guide to Genes, Mutations and Hybrids." Beginner Guide to Genes, Mutations and Hybrids. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

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Created with images by angela n. - "Cow"

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