Prescription Drugs Morphine

Morphine is the most abundant analgesic opiate found in opium and is a potent pain reliever. The drug is used in clinical pain relief but is also used illicitly for recreational purposes among drug users. It is potentially highly addictive and can cause intense physical dependence that leads to abuse of the substance.

Definition: an analgesic and narcotic drug obtained from opium and used medicinally to relieve pain.

The following video below is facts about Morphine

Morphine use and abuse

In previous decades, the injectable form of morphine was most commonly used. However, today it is taken in the form of a pill, a drinkable solution or a suppository.

Once injected or ingested, morphine enters the blood stream which carries it to the brain and other parts of the body where it activates opioid receptors to exert the effects of the drug. Activation of the μ1 receptor subtype leads to pain relief, while activation of the μ2 receptor can cause effects such as respiratory depression and addiction. Sedation or sleepiness is caused by morphine's activation of the κ receptor subtype.

Repeated use of morphine can lead to individuals developing tolerance of the drug and a physical and psychological dependence on it. Tolerance describes when an increased dose of the drug is needed if a person is to experience the same pleasurable effects as they experienced with a previous smaller dose because the effects have become blunted when this same smaller dose is used.

Morphine legal status

Worldwide, morphine is a Schedule I drug under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. In the Unites Sates, morphine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act and in the UK, it is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and a Schedule 2 controlled Drug under The Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001. In Australia, it is classified as a Schedule 8 drug under State and Territory Poisons Acts.

morphine: a white crystalline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, the source of its principal pharmacological activity. Morphine acts on the central nervous system to produce both depression and euphoric stimulation, effects that are mediated through its stimulation of mu opioid receptors. Stimulation of mu receptors exerts effects that depress nerve impulse transmission. Even in small amounts morphine depresses the respiratory system. Mu receptors' activation in some instances inhibits the transmission of inhibitory impulses, thereby causing stimulation. Examples of this include the euphoric response and constriction of the pupils by the third cranial nerve. Morphine has a marked analgesic effect because of its stimulation of mu receptors in both the brain and spinal cord, and its principal therapeutic value is for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Morphine rarely provides total relief of pain, but in most cases it reduces the level of suffering. Patients with severe pain may become drowsy and relaxed but seldom achieve the sensation of euphoria associated with use of the drug. Morphine is often given parenterally because its rapid absorption following oral administration is followed by rapid first-pass metabolism to an inactive glucuronide (oral bioavailability ranges from 17% to 33%). Repeated use of morphine leads to tolerance, necessitating increased dosage levels to get the same degree of pain relief.

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