James Joyce Emily Warren

James Joyce was a very important writer of the early 20th century. He loved and helped develop a style of writing called stream-of-consciousness. His writings made him a leader in the modernity of the time. His most famous piece was Ulysses, a controversial novel that made him well known as a writer.

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was born on February 2nd, 1882 in Dublin, Ireland. He was the eldest of 10 children and his parents were John Stanislaus Joyce and Marry Murray Joyce. His father was a talented singer but he liked to drink and did not handle the family's finances well. Because of this, the Joyce family did not have a lot of money.
Joyce was very intelligent and had a passion for literature and writing. He spent his free time reading literature from authors such as Dante, Aristotle, and Thomas Aquinas. Because of his love for literature, his family encouraged him to get an education. He was educated in large part by Jesuits. He attended Clongowes Wood College and Belvedere College before going to University College Dublin where he studied modern languages. He later went to Paris to study medicine but came back to Ireland soon after to tend to his sick mother.

In 1904, Joyce left Ireland with Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid from Galway and his future wife. They went to the Croatian city of Pula before settling in the Italian port city of Trieste. They had two children, Giorgio and Lucia. In Trieste, Joyce taught English, one of the 17 languages he was able to speak. Joyce continued to write.

In 1914, Joyce published his first book, Dubliners, a collection of 15 short stories that he had been working on since 1904. Two years later, he published his first novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Joyce's writing style was unconventional and while they did not receive much recognition at first, his books caught the attention of the famous American poet, Ezra Pound, who praised him for his works.

At the start of World War I, Joyce and his family were forced to move to Zurich for the duration of the war. It was in Zurich that Joyce began to write his most famous book, Ulysses. After the war, Pound convinced Joyce to move to Paris where he lived for the next 20 years.

With the help of Sylvia Beach, an expat, Joyce published Ulysses in 1922. This novel takes place over the course of a single day in Dublin. It is centered around the character Leopold Bloom, as well as Stephen Dedalus and Molly Bloom. Ulysses is a modern retelling of Homer's The Odyssey. Ulysses was very controversial as it went deep into the mind of Leopold Bloom, which was often very shocking and lurid. The book was viewed as obscene and it was banned in the U.S as well as Great Britain for many years. Bootlegged copies of the book continued to reach people in these countries and Joyce's unconventional style of writing spread throughout Europe and America.

James Joyce used the Stream-Of-Consciousness technique in his writing of "Ulysses". This is the continuous flow of a person's thoughts and reactions. With this writing style, the book was very vivid and honest. This received a spectrum of reactions and created controversy around the literary piece as it was very forward at the time. The book became widely accepted and successful during the 1930's. "Ulysses" made Joyce a leader of the modernity movement of the time.

In 1939, Joyce published his final book, Finnegan's Wake. It was a follow up to Ulysses and immediately successful. A year after he published this book, his family and him were forced to go back to Zurich in order to escape the Nazi invasion. Joyce's business advisor and long time friend, Paul Léon, went back to the Joyce's apartment in Paris to protect his work, much of which would have been lost during the second war.

Joyce suffered from many ocular problems throughout his life. He underwent multiple surgeries and was, for many years, almost blind. He died on January 13th, 1941 in Schwesterhaus vom Roten Kreuz, Zurich after an intestinal surgery. He was 59 years old. He was buried in Zurich in the Fluntern Cemetery.

"Life." The James Joyce Centre. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

"James Joyce." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 03 Feb. 2016. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

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