The past to present, China and India Preston JOnes Christen Gillispie


Hinduism was the main religion of India. 79.8% of the people are now Hinduism a drop since the early 2000's. There was no specific founder of this religion it was really from cultural and religious changes 1500 b.c. Hindu only believe in one god called Brahman which can take many forms. Such as Ganesha, Shiva, Krishna, Rama and more.

4 Central Beliefs:

  1. The Hindu belief in having a soul that was immortal.
  2. The Hindu belief that you are reincarnated.
  3. Karma decides what your class will be or what you have done to determine your current class.
  4. Hindu god take many forms.

Development of writing. Writing started with the Indus Valley Script in the 2600BC. Later change to the Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts. There main spoken languages however is Hindi and English.

Historical Scientific Achievements for the Indians was diamond mining, buttons and chess. Diamonds were very to the Indians it was a useful tool and made it easier to store there money. Buttons did not used to hold pants together they used to be a decorative piece of seashell that can be shaped. Chess was in the development but today's chess was changed from the original game they had back then.

Caste System. Manusmriti was the most important authoritative book on Hind law. Kind of based on the Hindus religion. This was reincarnation, Law of Karma and believed in doing sacrifices to help them.

Role of Women. Women were the untouchables which was basically lower than the lowest male. They weren't able to go anywhere without husband's permission. Child marriages, widow burning, and polygamy worsened.

Family's importance was prioritized in the caste system. Traits of these families was integrity, loyalty and unity was emphasized in India. Whole family shares income and food.

Social Mobility was not allowed because you were born into it and they thought you deserved being there because of Karma and everyone practically believes it.

Monsoons was most of there water income. plants strongly relies on the monsoon. The wet monsoon comes during the summer from the giant South western wind. The dry monsoon comes during the winter from the North Eastern wind. Without the wet monsoon or guess wrongly when it will hit, they will go into a famine

The British came to establish trade in the 18th century. Then by the second half of the 18th century they began to take control of India. Great Britain controlled India for 200 years before change. Britain ruled India by directly ruling it. Britain wanted this place for trade purposes. By August 15 1947 they gained Independence. India's people protested against Britain after WW2 when British were weak so Great Britain negotiated for their freedom. The pivotal figure for this action was Gandhi.

1.252 billion people live in India today.

3rd on the list of world's biggest GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

India's Government is now a democratic republic which is based on the principles of a constitution in which officals are elected. The caste system is now illegal in India because it discriminates against others based on their caste. Today Indian women can now do almost as much as man and they are still trying to improve their status.

A problem that India is facing is water irrigation. Water irrigation will help with more harvest and more fresh water when they don't have the wet monsoon. Another problem would be infrastructure. Infrastructure can save lives and they need to do this because the floods are wearing down this infrastructure.


Buddhism was created by Siddhartha Gautama which came from India. He is called the enlighten one and every one believe of different forms of this one guy. 244 million about 18.2% of China's population believe in this. Different forms was Guan-Yu, jade-Emperor, Eight-immortals.

4 Basic Doctrine

  1. Existence is suffering
  2. suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment
  3. there is a cessation of suffering, which is nervana
  4. a path to cessation of suffering is the eight-fold path. this contains right views, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

Inventions of China was the mechanical clock, gun powder, and a compass.

The Chinese language is the oldest language in the world. First staring using single symbols and characters to represent each word of the vocabulary. This has been altered but the language is still the same

Main language spoken today is Mandarin

Confucianism was founded by Kong Qiu who brought it in the 500 bce. Essential Beliefs of this was must maintain a sense of doing what is right, serve their superiors diligently and loyally, display benevolence toward others, ideal rulers should influence by morals.

Roles of Women; ancient time was they primary focused on family roles and help the men of the family. Today women can do almost as much as men in limitation but only few can ever make it there.

Importance of Family. Families had a great value over oneself. Mobility was limited and usually you would have to move to a bigger city to help make money for the family.

Great Britain started to colonize china first. They arrived in the 19th century and then later that century took control of China. For a little over 100 years they controlled china by crushing the opposition. Great Britain needed the tea, silk and porcelain but China didn't want any of there goods.

China gain its independence on October 1 1949 by slowly turning communist city by city. Mao Zedong was the leader of the communist party at the time of this.

Current Population of 1.357 billion people. China is the second only to the US being first. China's government is communist but they have different offices like socialist, one party, people's and democratic dictatorship. Xi Jinping son of Xi Zhongxun, once serve has deputy prime minister in China. Confucianism is still taught to people this day.

China's one child policy was to control the rapidly growing country, but now the average working age as gone up as a result.

One challenge that China is facing today is urbanization. 62% of people live in rural areas now but in 20 years it is predicted that 70% of the population will now live in urban areas. This is going to affect every balance that china has.


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