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中共国扼住湄公河流域且加重干旱,威胁亚洲上几百万人生命线 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:CNBC

作者:Huileng Tan

封面作者:Faltri A

翻译:Ignoreme

校对:InAhurry

简评:

中共国利用其在湄公河上游的地理位置(国内称澜沧江)陆续建造了多座水坝用于水力发电,完全不顾给下游国家带来的生态变化与严重干旱。中共还对国际非政府组织的报告视而不见,狡辩称“毫无根据,与事实不符”,但是从来不说哪里没有根据,哪里与什么事实不符,中共是否只是想掩盖其军事用途,并霸占南中国海。中共国的野心表现在各个方面。

原文:

China could have choked off the Mekong and aggravated a drought, threatening the lifeline of millions in Asia

中共国扼住湄公河流域且加重干旱,威胁亚洲上几百万人生命线

KEY POINTS 要点:

A study released recently found that China is holding back large amounts of water upstream on the Mekong River, contributing to drought in the Southeast Asian countries downstream last year, according to a report from Eyes on Earth, a research and consulting firm specializing in water.

根据地球之眼(Eyes on Earth)一个专门从事水利研究和咨询的公司最近研究报告发现中共正在拦住湄公河上流大量水流,这加重了下流南亚国家的干旱情况。

The Mekong River runs through six countries starting from China, before flowing past countries like Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Myanmar, and Vietnam.

湄公河发源中共国,流经6个国家,包括柬埔寨,老挝,泰国,缅甸和越南。

At the center of the changing face of the Mekong is China’s master plan to open a passage for massive cargo, said Fitch Solutions. That passage — from the Yunnan province through the Mekong countries and into the South China Sea — may potentially include military ships in the future, the research house added.

改变湄公河面貌的中心是中共国为大型货物打开通道的总体规划,叫做惠誉解决方案。这个通道从云南经过湄公河流域各国进入南中国海 -将来可能会经过军事船只,研究机构补充说。

This picture taken on February 14, 2020 shows a food vendor waiting for customers as tourists walk along a beach in Sihanoukville. 这张照片拍摄于2020年2月14日,一个卖食物的小贩正在等待游客走过西哈努克城的海滩。

China’s upstream activities along the Mekong River have long been contentious — but a recent study has sparked fresh scrutiny over its dam-building exercises, reigniting warnings that millions of livelihoods could be destroyed.

中共国在湄公河上游的行动引起争议已久- 但是最近的研究对大坝的修建活动进行了新的审查,燃起可能破坏上百万人的生计的警告。

A U.S.-government funded study by research and consulting firm, Eyes on Earth, found that Chinese dams are holding back large amounts of water upstream on the Mekong, which exacerbated a severe drought in the Southeast Asian countries downstream last year.

一个被美国政府投资的研究和咨询公司,地球之眼 Eyes on Earth,发现中共国的大坝拦住的湄公河上游大量水流,这使得下游东南亚国家近些年严重干旱加剧。

China dismissed the scientific report as “groundless.”

中共国认为这个科学报告“毫无根据”

The 4,350 kilometer (2,700 mile) Mekong River runs through six countries. Starting from China — where it is called the Lancang River — it flows past countries like Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Myanmar, before emptying into the South China Sea via Vietnam.

It is the lifeblood of these Southeast Asian countries and supports the livelihood of nearly 200 million people there who depend largely on farming and fishing.

4350公里(2700英里)的湄公河流经6个国家。发源于中共国 – 在那里叫澜沧江 – 流过柬埔寨,老挝, 泰国和缅甸,最后由越南进入南中国海。

China built its first dam on the upper Mekong in the 1990s and currently runs 11 dams along the river. The country has plans to build more dams, which are used to generate hydropower.

中共国在上世纪90年代建造了第一座大坝,现在已经有11座,中共国还要建更多大坝,用于水力发电。

Some of those dams have compounded the alteration of the river’s natural flow, resulting in the Lower Mekong recording “some of its lowest river levels ever throughout most of the year,” said the Eyes on Earth study. The report was published by the UN-backed Sustainable Infrastructure Partnership, and the Lower Mekong Initiative — a multinational partnership of the U.S. with Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.

地球之眼的报告称:其中一些大坝加剧了河流自然流量的变化,这创造了湄公河下游一年大部分时间处于最低水位的记录。这份报告是由联合国支持的“可持续伙伴关系”与美国和柬埔寨,老挝,缅甸,泰国,越南组成的跨国伙伴关系“湄公河下游倡议“一起发布的。

According to the study, which used data from 1992 to 2019, satellite measurements of “surface wetness” in China’s Yunnan province suggest the region actually had slightly above-average combined rainfall and snowmelt from May to October 2019.

根据该项使用了1992-2019数据的研究, 卫星测量的云南省地表湿度显示该地区从2019年五月起降雨量和雪融水量稍高于平均水平。

Mainstream dams on the Mekong River

湄公河主流水域上的大坝

But water levels measured downstream along the Thai-Lao border were at times lower than they should have been, according to Alan Basist and Claude Williams, who authored the report.

但是同期测量的泰老边界的下游的水位却低于应有水位,Alan Basist和Claude Williams两位该报告的作者说。

This points to China holding back dam waters while lower Mekong countries experienced drought that impacted rice production and fisheries, threatening food security for the region.

这表明中共国用大坝截流,而湄公河下游国家遭遇干旱影响了水稻和渔业,威胁到这些地区的粮食安全。

‘Irreversible damage’ to ecosystem

对生态系统“不可挽回的破坏”

“China’s dam management is causing erratic and devastating changes in water levels down stream,” according to Washington-based security think tank, Stimson Center. “Unexpected dam releases caused rapid rises in river level that have devastated communities downstream, causing millions in damage shocking the river’s ecological processes,” according to a report dated April 13.

根据4月13日的一份报告,中共国的大坝导致下游水位不可预料且破坏性改变,根据位于华盛顿的安全智库斯汀森中心的说法,“意外的大坝泄洪会导致已经摧毁下游社区的水位突然升高,从而造成上百万的损失和震动河流生态过程。”

While China was the subject of the Eyes on the Earth Study, stakeholders acknowledge that all the dams — more than a hundred operational ones along the Mekong — impact the river, with each facility putting incremental pressure on the environment. Not all of them belong to China.

虽然中共国是地球之眼的研究课题,利益相关者承认,所有的大坝 – 湄公河沿线超过一百多座运营中的大坝 – 都会影响湄公河,因为每一个设施都不断地对环境增大的压力。不是所有的大坝都是中共国的。

"We believe that the resultant threat to food security from this damage will put upside pressure on inflation for countries downstream in the Mekong River."

“我们认为这些破坏导致的粮食安全威胁会对湄公河下游国家的通胀带来上行压力。”

But as the most upstream country, China’s dams have been deemed to be of strategic political interest as countries downstream may become increasingly beholden to Beijing for water, analysts said.

分析师称:但是作为最上游国家,中共国的大坝被认为是有国家政治战略意义的,因为下游国家可能因为水受到北京方面越来越多的牵制。

Communities living along the river have been registering unusual water fluctuations with the building of new dams, said Pianporn Deetes, Thailand representative at International Rivers, a non-governmental organization. Some have seen unseasonal droughts and sudden water level rises, she added.

国际河流非政府组织泰国代表Pianporn Deetes说:湄公河沿岸的社区在新大坝修建时就已经出现水位异常波动。有些地区会有非季节性干旱和突然的水位上涨。

The unusual activities “destroy the natural system of the Mekong River,” Pianporn said during an online discussion on Friday held by the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Thailand. It destroys the livelihoods of those who depend on the ecosystem, including aquatic plants and animals, she said.

这些异常行为 “摧毁了湄公河的自然系统。 ” Pianporn在泰国外国记者俱乐部周五举行的线上讨论中说,这破坏了靠生态系统谋生的人的生计,包括水产动植物。

Research from Stimson Center pointed to the same conclusion.

来自斯汀森中心的研究得出相同结论。

It said that fishing communities alongside Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake – where Cambodians catch up to 70% of their protein intake – reported fish catches that were 80-90% lower than usual. “Today some highly populated portions of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta have completely lost access to fresh water,” said authors of the report, Brian Eyler and Courtney Weatherby.

报告称柬埔寨洞里萨湖周围的渔民 – 那里是柬埔寨人高达70%的蛋白质来源 – 报告称捕鱼量比平时低80-90%。“今天,越南湄公河三角洲部分的人口密集区彻底失去了获得淡水的途径。”报告作者Brian Eyler 与Courtney Weat称。

Pianporn called for data and information transparency from both China and other downstream countries, and urged authorities to view the Mekong River as an entire system and a shared resource.

Pianporn要求中共国与其他下游地区国家要数据和信息透明化,并敦促当局把湄公河看作是一个完整的系统并共享资源。

A fisherman checks his net along the Mekong River at Sangkhom district, in the northeastern Thai province of Nong Khai, on October 31, 2019. The once mighty Mekong River has been reduced to a thin, grubby neck of water across Northern Thailand, blamed on drought and a recently opened dam hundreds of kilometers upstream. 泰国北部廊开省些胶县湄公河沿线的一个渔民正在查看渔网。2019年10月31日。曾经威猛的湄公河成了又窄又脏水湾穿过泰国北部,这归咎于上游近期开放的几百公里的大坝。

Others have highlighted the environmental threats of the numerous dams along the Mekong River.

其他人认为湄公河流域众多大坝对环境的威胁值得引起注意。

Fitch Solutions in a February report: “We believe that the resultant threat to food security from this damage will put upside pressure on inflation for countries downstream in the Mekong River.”

惠誉解决方案在2月的报告中称:“我们认为由此导致的对粮食确保的威胁会对湄公河下游国家通胀造成上行压力。”

“The destruction of the natural ecosystem would also spur a shift in economic activity along the riverbanks away from agriculture and towards manufacturing and hospitality services such as tourism,” Fitch said, citing “irreversible damage” to the ecosystem.

“对自然生态系统的破坏可能会刺激河流沿岸经济活动从农业向制造业和服务业转变。”毁誉方案引用了对生态系统“不可逆损害”的说法。

The result would be that countries downstream would then have to rely more on the world’s second largest economy, said Fitch.

接下来的后果可能会是下游国家不得不更依赖这个世界第二大经济体。惠誉方案称。

China denies report findings

中共国否认了报告的研究发现

The Chinese government dismissed the report which blamed China for exacerbating one of Southeast Asia’s worst droughts.

中共政府驳斥了这份指责中共是加剧东南亚严重干旱原因之一的报告。

In a reply to CNBC, the foreign ministry said that reduced precipitation, an abnormal monsoon, combined with an extreme El Nino events were the main causes of the drought. The ministry pointed to scientific findings from the Mekong River Commission that showed there was widespread drought across most of regions surrounding the entire river.

外交部在给CNBC的回复中说,降水减少,异常的季风与极端的厄尔尼诺现象是干旱的主要原因。外交部指出来自湄公河委员会的科学发现显示了整个湄公河流域的大部分地区有广泛分布的干旱。

The statement also said that foreign minister Wang Yi had pledged in February to cooperate with the Lower Mekong countries to ensure the rational and sustainable use of water resources. That shows China’s “responsible attitude” as a country in the upper stream, the ministry said, according to a CNBC translation of the remarks in Chinese.

声明还提到外交部长王毅在2月已经承诺与湄公河下游国家合作,确保合理与可持续的利用水资源。他还说,这表明了中共国作为上游国家“负责任的态度”。--CNBC根据中文备注翻译。

"To Beijing, water is considered a sovereign commodity for consumptive use rather than a shared resource to be made available in an equitable manner to downstream stakeholders. "- Brian Eyler and Courtney Weatherby STIMSON CENTER

“对北京当局来说,水被认为是一种用于消费的主权商品而非与下游国家的利益相关者公平利用的共享资源。”-Brian Eyler 与Courtney Weatherby 于斯汀森中心

At a regular press briefing last week, foreign ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang called the report “groundless” and said it “runs counter to facts,” according to an official transcript.

根据官方笔录,在上周的例行简明记者会上,外交部发言人耿爽称此报告“毫无根据”且“与事实不符”。

“The outflow from Lancang has a very limited impact on the overall volume of the Mekong as runoff in the lower reaches mainly depends on precipitation and contributions from branch rivers,” he said. “Therefore there is no reason justifying the claim that China is responsible for the drought in downstream countries.”

“澜沧江流出的水量对湄公河的总流量影响非常有限,因为下游径流量主要依靠降水和支流水量”他说。 “因此,没有理由称中共国该为下游国家的干旱负责。”

The Mekong River Commission — an inter-governmental body comprising Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam — said earlier this month that “more scientific evidence was necessary to conclude that the 2019 drought was in large part caused by water storage in Upper Mekong dams.” It also urged for more information sharing among stakeholder countries, including China.

湄公河委员会 – 由柬埔寨,老挝,泰国,越南组成的政府间机构 –本月早些时候称: “2019年干旱很大程度上归因于湄公河上游大坝储水的结论还需要更多科学证据。”并且敦促利益相关国家,包括中共国共享更多信息。

Grand plans for the river

宏伟计划

Economic transformation of the river will change power relations around the Mekong.

湄公河流域的经济转型将会改变其周围的权力关系。

Though increasingly absent in the Asia Pacific region, the U.S. has long challenged China’s influence in Southeast Asia.

虽然逐渐缺席亚太地区,但是美国一直挑战中共国在东南亚的影响。

Last week, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said he was concerned about expressed concerns over the report by Eyes on Earth. Last year, he blamed the blaming drought in the lower Mekong countries on “China’s decision to shut off water upstream.”

上周,国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥说他对《地球之眼》的报告表示担忧。去年,他将湄公河下游国家的干旱归咎于“中共国截流上游水源。”

At the center of the changing face of the Mekong is China’s master plan to open a passage for massive cargo, said Fitch Solutions. That passage — from the Yunnan province through the Mekong countries and into the South China Sea — may potentially include military ships in the future, the research house added.

在湄公河面貌不断变化的中心是中共国想打开大型货物通道的总体规划,惠誉解决方案总结说。这个通道 – 从云南省通过湄公河沿线各国并到达南中国海 – 将来可能包括军用船只。研究机构补充说。

This screengrab from an aerial video taken on October 28, 2019 shows the Mekong river in Sungkom district in Nong Khai province, more than 300km from the Xayaburi dam. 此截屏来自于2019年10月28日的航拍,显示位于廊开省些胶县湄公河段,距离扎雅武里水坝300多公里。

China also has long-term plans to set up special economic zones on both banks of the Mekong that would include residential property, ports, and rail and road links, noted Fitch Solutions. The upside is that this would facilitate trade between the Mekong nations and make the Golden Triangle — where Laos, Myanmar and Thailand meet — a very effective trade location.

中共国也有长期计划在湄公河两岸建设特别经济区,可能包括住宅房地产,港口,铁路与公路的连接。惠誉解决方案标注。有利的一面是这将促进湄公河国家这间的贸易,并使老挝,缅甸和泰国交汇的金三角成为非常有效的贸易地点。

Researchers at Stimson offered one reason why China might be holding back the water resources. “To Beijing, water is considered a sovereign commodity for consumptive use rather than a shared resource to be made available in an equitable manner to downstream stakeholders,” authors of the report said.

斯汀森中心的研究者提供了一个理由关于为什么中共国可能钳制水资源。“对北京当局来说,水资源被认为是用于消费的主权商品,而非与下游利益相关国家平等使用共享资源。”报告作者称。

But Beijing treats information about water flow and hydropower operations as a “state secret,” researchers at Stimson said. “This lack of transparency allowed China to set a narrative of shared suffering due to the drought and established common cause for China to deepen its economic cooperation with the downstream through its Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Mechanism.” — CNBC’s Daisy Cherry contributed to this report.

斯汀森研究者还称,“但是由于北京方面视水流量与水里发电为“国家机密”,这中信息透明性的缺失能让中共国以分担干旱造成的苦难和建立共同事业为借口,通过澜沧-湄公合作机制来加深下游国家与中共国的经济合作。” - CNBC Daisy Cherry 报道

编辑【喜马拉雅战鹰团】