China & India Cory Apple & Josie Bromley

During this presentation we are going to be explaining the difference and some similarities between China and India.

India

The main religion of India is Hinduism which is the oldest religion in the world. 84% of the country is Hindus. The everlasting religion is also known as “Santan Dharma”. The religion has about 950 million followers, which is about 14% of the world’s population.

4 central beliefs:Atman, Samsara, Karma and Dharma

Atman: having an eternal self, such as spirit, immortal Samsara: when a temporary body dies and goes through rebirth deciphering if the spirit goes to heaven or hell Karma: determines how the Atman will be reborn in the next life Dharma: righteous way of living; describes the duties people have in life, it also refers to how the universe works.

Deities

Vedas: the most Ganesha- God of knowledge, wisdom, and wealth Shiva- represents death and dissolution, most powerful Krishna- influenced thought, life and culture Rama- symbol of chivary and virtue Hanuman- symbol of physical strength, perseverance, and devotion Vishnu- sustainer of life with his principles of order, righteousness and truth Lakshimi- means good luck, the goddess of wealth and prosperity Durga- protector of the righteous Kali- fearful and ferocious Saraswati- goddess of knowledge and learning. Belief in one God, a God who can manifest in many different forms

Languages

Written developed in the Indus Valley round 2600 BC, still un-translated. Braham and Kharosthi were developed for official and local languages. The current spoken lanuages: Hindi 420 Million

Historical Scientific Achievements's

The discovery of zero, INtroduction if Atom theory-Maharishi Kariad, and Diamond mining

CCast System-Origins and History

Braham's Manifestation of 4 Groups

  • Priests and teachers were cast from his mouth
  • Rulers and warriors from his arms
  • Merchants and traders from his thighs
  • Workers and peasants from his feet

Manusmrit was the most important and authoirative book that acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society

Different castes almost always lived in segregated Colonies...

  1. Brahmins
  2. Kshatriyas
  3. Vaishyas
  4. Shudras

Only marry people in the same caste

3 central beliefs of the caste system

  • Reincarnation
  • Law of Kharma
  • Believed in doing sacrifices to help them

Role of Women

  • The rig vedic women enjoyed a high status in society
  • Were provided opportunity to attain high intellectual and spiritual standard
  • Started to be discriminated in education and other rights
  • Had child marriages, widow burning, and polygamy worsened
  • Couldn't go anywhere without husband's permission
  • Devadasi system(forced prostitution before puberty for upper-class) was becoming widespread

Social Mobility

A relatively high degree of social mobility among urban residents, about 26& of sons whose fathers were in the lowest caste

Only around 10% of the sons of fathers in the lowest occupational class could achieve the highest two occupational classes

  • Monsoon: the seasonal wind of the Indian ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in summer and from the Northeast in winter
  • They carry fresh water to many farmers
  • Isthe main water source for 55% of the country's land
  • Without the monsoon it used to lead to a year full of bad famine and debt

What country colonized and controlled INdia?

Britain was the dominant European power in India. Towards the 17th century India became the focal point of the East India companies trade

When did Britain first arrive in INdia?

  • IN 1763 Britain came to India

When did Britain take control of india?

Britain took control of India in 1858 and was in charge for nearly 200 years.

When did India gain its independence back?

The british house of commons passed the Indian Independence act, which divided India into two dominions: India & Pakistan. The pivotal figure in India's independence was mahatma Gadhi for indias independence.

Current Population is 1,319,577,958

Current rank by GDP is 3rd, GDP-2,250,990

Current government

  • Republic of India
  • Federal parliamentary republic
  • Leader: Prime minister is Narendra Modi; he focuses of reforming INdia's infrastructure 7 government. A controversial figure internationally

Current place and effects of the caste system

Effects:

  • Caused difficulties in national unity
  • It stood against democracy
  • Resulted in suppression
  • Hampered national development
  • Resulted in treachery and the unlimate fall of the Hindus
  • Religious conversion
  • Gave a lower status to women

Current place

  • No discrimination towards people because of the caste( legallyl forbidden)
  • More flexible now, lower castes can move up to the higher castes
  • Role of Women today
  • Held in high esteem
  • Equal to men in all respects
  • Major struggle India is facing
  • water resources- flood control and maintenance

China

Main Religion is Buddhism

Jian Zhen is the founder who traveled to spread Buddhism in 1618

Brought to china 2000 years ago

Slowly, widely accepted by most

Han, Tibetan, and southern Buddhism

It influences the local culture in literature, art, and ideology

  • Originated from India
  • Central Deities
  1. Monkey
  2. Guan-Yu
  3. Jade-Emperor
  4. Eight-Imoortals
  5. Yen-Lo-Wang
  6. Guan-Yin
  7. Ao-Chin
  8. Nu-Gua
  9. Cao-Guojiu
  10. Lan-Caihe

Current number of practitioners is 488 million people

4 Main Beliefs

  • Existence is suffering ( dukkhaa )
  • Suffering has a cause namely craving and attachment ( Trishna)
  • Cessation of suffering ( Hirvana )
  • A path to the cessation of suffering ( eightfold path)

Historical Scientific Achievement

  • Mechanical clock: created by Yi Xing in the Tang Dynasty
  • Iron and Steel smelting during the Zhou Dynasty
  • Porcelain was invented in the Shang Dinasty

Development of Writtten Language

  • The first recognizable form of writing dates back 3500 Years ago
  • The earlieest form was called oracle bone script which was written in bones and on bones

Current Dominant Languages

  • Mandarin
  • Cantonese

Confucianism Origins and Religion

  • Originated in china
  • Formed in 500 BCE
  • 5,000,000 followers

3 Central core Beliefs

  • Maintain a sense of doing what is right
  • Serve their superiors diligently and loyally
  • Display benevolence toward others

Historical role of Women and their treatment

  • Were only brought up I history if they caused problems
  • Women were "Yin" which meant soft, yielding, receptive, passive, reflective, and tranquil
  • Oppressed
  • Treated as inferiors since birth

Current Role of Women and Their Treatment

  • Treated as prostitutes
  • Worked in food and keeping home clean

Importance of family vs. individual

  • A key component in Chinese society
  • Relationships were centered around family
  • China emphasizes one's power form the external authorities of power

Social Mobility

  • Men were the top, in charge of everyone
  • Women were considered servantes and sometimes did not receive names

The importance of the yellow and tangtze river

Yellow

  • Usually a source of rich fertile soil and irrigation water
  • Has destroyed entire villages
  • Used for agriculture, transportation, and even a weapon

Yanngtze

  • Rich fertile soil, transportation, good for crops and produce
  • Connects East and West China together to provide transportation of people and goods

jWhat country colonized and controlled China?

  • Great Britain

When did the colonizing country first arrive in China?

  • During the 19th century

How long, and in what way was China controlled?

  • From 1841 to 1949
  • To crush oppositions to its interference in the country's economic and political affairs

What was the main reason that China was colonized?

  • There was a high demand for the tea, silk, and porcelain-the british did not have enough silver to trade

When did China gain its independence?

  • OCtober 1, 1949

HOw did China gain its independence?

  • Major cities and towns became communist then founded the people's republic of China

Who was China's pivotal figure for independence?

  • Mao Zendong
  • Current effects of Confucianism in China
  • Taught social values and concepts
  • Established churches and schools
  • What role do women have today?
  • depends on where they are in social boundaries
  • Many women are beginning to scrutinize their role in society
  • Chinas one child policy and its effects caused China to allow two children because one child policy was slowing the economy
  • ONe widespread challenge that China is facing today
  • There is a gendder imbalance due to the fact that they have abortions on children if they are not the right gender.

Credits:

Created with images by SmokingPermitted - "Cosa sono? La bambina dei no" - "Soldiers" • monicore - "goddess india religion"

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