Chapter 29 By Vincent AfFRunTi

The Central Nervous System

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, along with all the nerves and tissues that make it up. The brain receives information from the nerves that pass through the spine. It also receives other information from sensory organs like the ears (sound) , eyes (sight) and mouth (taste).

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of all the nerves and ganglia that are outside of the brain and spine. All of these nerves and ganglia connect the spine and brain to other organs and limbs throughout the body, allowing for a smooth flow of communication between the body and the brain and spine.

The Somatic Nervous System

The Somatic Nervous System is part of the Peripheral Nervous System and is associated with skeletal and voluntary movement of the body. It's main functions are voluntary movement of the muscles and organs and reflex movements. In the process of voluntary movement, sensory neurons carry impulses to the brain and the spinal cord.

The Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System regulates the functions of our organs. It is involuntary, which means it assists in digestion, heart beat, and breathing. It has two parts. One is the Parasympathetic and the other is the Sympathetic. The parasympathetic system counteracts the actions of the sympathetic nerves. It is nerves running from the brain to the end of the spine supplying the internal organs, blood vessels and glands. The sympathetic system activates the fight or flight response, which are perceived from harmful events to the body, by the sympathetic nervous system.

Sensory Neuron

Sensory neurons carry signals from the outside of your body to the Brian. They also transmit impulses from the receptors in our sense organs to the brain.

Interneurons

Interneurons transmit impulses between other neurons, especially as a part of a reflex.

Motor Neuron

A motor neuron is located in the spinal cord. Its fibers (axons) project outside of the spine, and directly or indirectly control organs, like muscles and glands.

Neuromuscular Junction

A neuromuscular junction is a synapse formed by a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is here where the motor neuron transmits a signal to the muscle fiber, causing contraction.

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine is a chemical in the brain that acts as a neurotransmitter. It is released by Nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Neropinephrine and Epinephrine

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system respectively. They are the flight/fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress. During stress, much of the body's energy is used to combat imminent danger.

Synapse

A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White Matter

White matter is bundles of myelinated axons, which connect various areas of gray matter of the brain to each other while carrying impulses.

Grey Matter

Grey matter the cell bodies in which all of the synapses are contained.

Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum and functions as a key part in consciousness.

The lobes

There are six Lobes of the brain (the occipital, temporal, frontal, motor, sensory, and parietal) that all play a huge role. The occipital lobe is there for sight, the temporal lobe is there for memory, understanding and language, the frontal lobe is there for executive functions, the motor Lobe is for movement, the sensory is for the senses and the parietal is for perception.

Limbic System

The primary structures within the limbic system include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.

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