Mongolia is in the continent of Asia and covers 1,553,556 square kilometres of land. This makes it the 19th largest country in the world. Mongolia became an independent state in 1921 as they won sovereignty against China.
The population of Mongolia as of 2012 is 3,179,997. They share a boarder with Russia and China.
Children are and have always been very special in the Mongolian culture and large families were very normal to have. Mongolians aspired to have large families because many children meant having extra help and security during old age. Even today having a big family is seen as an advantage to the Mongolian culture. Most families live and lived in more urban areas rather than rural areas. In the Mongolian culture, the son is the one to receive most of the family's money and he would inherit most of the family’s wealth. If the couple had a daughter, she would then marry out of the family.
Customs and Traditions
Naadam Festival: This festival is the most popular Mongolian festival. This festival is all about the “three manly sports”, wrestling, horse riding and, archery. As well as the entertainment of a sporting event there is eating, crafts, drinking and, socializing. This festival takes place from July 9th - July 16th.
Tsagaan Sar: the “white moon” celebration is celebrated at the lunar year. The tradition is to climb the sacred mountain on the first day of the new year to welcome the first morning of the new year on the mountain peak. The following days Mongolians visit family and friends and participate and enjoy cooking, eating and, drink. The date of this festival depends on the lunar calendar in which they are celebrating the first day of spring.
Shamanism: religious practice that involves an individual tries to interact with a spirit or the spirit world through. They do this by going into a conscious-altering trance. There are different forms such as, ceremonial ritual, divination, animism, necromancy or “black magic”. They do this to try and find obtaining knowledge, power or healing. People who seek help in Mongolia will see a Shaman for a cure or a blessing.
Buddhism: Religious and spiritual practice in seek to find knowledge of true nature and reality. People who practice buddhism also practice meditation to find and develop qualities such as awareness, kindness, and wisdom. Mongolians have practiced Buddhism since the 16th century.
Other religions: they have a small muslim community of 6 percent of the population. The opening up of the country has led to a high number of Christian missionaries, this adds tension and debate to most Mongolians.
The people of Mongolia speak an altaic language. It is spoken by 5 million people in Mongolia, China, Afghanistan, and Russia. Khalkha or Halha is the main Mongolian language and Oirat, Chahar and Ordos, which are spoken mainly in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China. In 1941 the Mongolian government created a traditional Mongolian script and from 1st February to 25 March 1941 the Mongolian script was written in the Latin alphabet until the Cyrillic alphabet was born which is the official alphabet of Mongolia.
Form of Government
Mongolia is ruled by the democratic party. Their parliament is referred to as the state great Khural which is the highest organ of state power.
The president is nominated by the majority vote and are able to serve only two, four year terms. The President is also able to confirm appointments of judges, appoint ambassadors, grant pardons and enter into international treaties. The prime minister is elected by the ruling party and must be confirmed by the president. The prime minister is only able to serve for a 4 year period.
Ever since 1992 when Mongolia adopted the new constitution, they have transformed from a closed society ruled by a single-party Communist to an open society and a dynamic multi-party democracy. From todays research, Mongolia's economy is declining rapidly by 10% so there bank increased their taxes by 4.5%. This year they expect their economic growth to be low.
Art and Literature
The Mongolians did not produce much arts and literature during the empire. Out of all the art Mongolians have specialized the most in music. Their culture has developed a type of singing that is referred to as throat singing. This singing is called Khoomei. Khoomei singing consist of using the diaphragm and the throat to sing one note and using the mouth to sing another note. Mongolian singers sing and express their feelings for their horses, their families, natural beauty and and nomadic life.