Ethology Application Margo chavez & Lilly wheatley

Blackcap Migration is a genetic behavior which can be linked to natural selection. Only until the latter half of the 20th century did the migration pattern change, blackcaps would go spend time in the region of Spain during the winter but later due to climate change the Blackcap population began overwintering in Britain.

Vampire bats exhibit altruism through the innate behavior to share blood with other bats who did not feed that night. This behavior is encouraged by natural selection because the altruistic bats insure survival and reproduction for the group.

Shore crabs forage for medium size mussels, these mussels have the highest energy yield and therefore increase the shore crabs' fitness because of this factor.

Coho salmon males have two breeding strategies that are influenced by growth rate of the fish. Jacks are males who have a faster growth rate and return to the breeding ground a year earlier than Hooknoses. Hooknoses have a slower growth rate so they remain in the ocean for a year longer. This causes them to grow significantly larger which aids them in fights because in order to breed with the female Hooknoses fight with other Hooknoses and Jacks sneak up and spread their sperm over the eggs. Both of these strategies benefit the differing male sizes, allowing both the ability to breed and in turn increasing the reproductive pool.

Birds of paradise mate selection: Females of this species tend to choose males who have exaggerated features and elaborate courtship dances. According to Darwin males with the ability to maintain and survive with the brightly colored plumage and has the energy to do the elaborate dances are seen as having an overall fitness that is attractive to females of this species. Along with that, females are able to tell if the males belong to their species based on plumage and the type of courting dance. This ability helps the birds avoid interspecific hybridization.

Synchronized oestrus in female lions: The synchronized oestrus in female lions within a pride aid the pride's survival because this means all the females will be lactating at the same time when the cubs are suckling. This allows some females to leave to hunt while some stay with the cubs, increasing the survival of the cubs. Along with that, a group of male cubs will be able to leave at the same time and compete for dominance of another pride which will be more effective.

Blue tits versus robins in the development of milk stealing behavior: Two species of birds (blue tits and robins) were fed with cream out of bottles. The bottles had nothing covering the top so it was easily accessible, but eventually the tops of the bottles were covered with an aluminum cover. As a whole, the blue tits population was able to pass on the knowledge how to break the seal and get to the cream, but the robinS did not. This is largely due to the nature of robins being more solitary so they didn't communicate with each other how to break the seal.

Imprinting of bird song for development: When a bird hatches, it already has a song template specific to its species. While they are maturing, they listen to how the adult birds sing their song and try to mimick the was they sing it. Eventually the fledglings song gets louder and more complex until it matches the song of the adult birds. It is important for birds to be exposed to their song so they can perfect it because a birds song is used to communicate with others.

Credits:

Created with images by Steppenwolf1979 - "gorilla zoo monkey" • ahisgett - "Blackcap 3a" • darkday. - "Vampire Bats" • Sarz.K - "Sunbathing crab" • BLMOregon - "Counting Fish on the Salmon River" • maxful - "Paradise Riflebird, native Vireya" • RobBixbyPhotography - "JaxZoo_11-25-12-3623.jpg" • keith ellwood - "Blue Tit in the sun" • jlaswilson - "bullfinch song bird bird"

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