6 Component Project For Ancient Greece By: Umair Hussain

Geography/Cities

Ancient Greece city

If you take a look at a map of Ancient Greece today, you would see a peninsula with shimmering water on all three sides. Ancient Greece was a mountainous land that had cold winters and hot and mild summers with a beaming sun right on top of people's head's. The geography of Ancient Greece impacted settlement and people's lives because ancient Greeks could make a living off of the sea. The sea attracted fishermen, traders, and sailors. Other people chose to be in the farming community. But the mild climate, high mountains, and rocky soil weren't necessarily good for growing crops. But the mild climate had a benefit as well. The mild climate helped people grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. It also allowed people to raise sheep and goats. The Greeks felt deep knots to the land, but the mountains and seas divided them form one another. This caused the Greek Communities to grow up to be strongly independent. Minoans had wealthy families and had storerooms filled with oil, wine, and grain. Minoans were wealthy because of their trade. They made ships from oak and cedar trees. Some of the early cities of Greece included Athens, Sparta, and Thebes. Athens was located in the southwestern corner of Greece where to the northeast was the Aegean Sea and to the southwest was the Mediterranean Sea. Athens was settled 5 miles from the bay of Phaleron, an inlet of the Aegean Sea. Another city, Sparta, is located by the Europa River in the southern part of Greece. The Spartans used the Europa River to use transportation route to get to their port. These cities were all located by water because they couldn't go deep into Greece because there were mountains there and it's too hard to live in mountains.

Challenge

Thebes is located in a plain between Lake Yliki. This allowed food, wool production, and storage to take place. The lake Yliki helped build the city because people made mud brick walls and you need water and mud to make this occur. Thebes's role in the Peloponnesian War was that they took sides with the Spartans and attacked an Athenian ally causing open war to begin again.

Class Divisions

Greek Class Divisions

Ancient Greek citizenship was where everybody got treated fairly and ha had rights and did things as a community. Ancient Greek citizenship didn't really have citizens, instead they preferred the term citizens to be members in the political community who treat people with equal respect and people who have equal rights. The citizens had the right to gather in an agora to choose who they wanted in charge. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. The citizens had to return the favor by serving in the government and fighting for their polis as soldier citizens. Ancient Greek citizenship was different from Mesopotamia and Egypt because there people had no rights, no say in government, and had no other choice but to obey their rulers.

Challenge

The advantages of being a citizen in Ancient Greece is that people are treated fairly and get to choose what they want. They also can defend themselves in court which is a big deal. A disadvantage could be that people may not want to join the army but they could be desperate to because the government gave them a great citizenship, but they still have to do something in favor of that.

Art

Greek art

There are many types of Greek art but some include epics, fables, dramas, tragedies, and comedy. An epic is a long poem told about heroic deeds. The first great epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey. These great poems were written by the famous Homer in the late seven hundreds B.C. In the Iliad,a prince of Troy kidnaps the wife of the king of Sparta. The kidnapping angers the Greeks. The king of Mycenae and the brother of the king of Sparta lead the Greeks to plan an attack on Troy. The battle for Troy goes on for 10 years. Finally, the Greeks come up with a plan to capture the city. They build a huge, hollow, wooden horse. The best Mycenaean warriors hide inside the horse. The Trojans think the wooden horse was a gift from the Greeks and role it into the city. Then the Greeks climb out of the horse and capture the city. A fable is a short tale that points out a lesson. In most of the fables, animals talk and act like people. Fables can also be funny. One of the most famous fables is called “The Tortoise and the Hare.” In this fable, a hare and a tortoise decide to race. The hare is ahead of the tortoise already halfway into the race until the hare decides to rest and falls asleep. The tortoise is still moving in the race slow and steady and it ends up winning the race. The lesson is "slow and steady wins the race." For about 200 years, Aesop’s fables were a part of Greece’s tradition. They were passed down from mouth to mouth until they had a chance to get written. Since then, many writers have retold the stories by their writing in many different languages. Drama is a story told by actors who act out and pretend to be characters in the story. In a drama, actors speak, express emotion, and act out their characters feelings and thoughts. Today's movies, plays, and shows are all good examples for drama. In a tragedy, it shows how a person struggles and fails. Tragedies end in unhappy and sad way. Early Greek tragedies showed how a person struggled against their fate. Later, Greek tragedies showed how a person’s action's flaws caused the person to fail. A comedy is the opposite of a tragedy. In a comedy, the story eds in a happy ending. Today we define the word comedy as a story filled with humor, but the correct meaning if comedy is any story with a happy ending. Art impacted Ancient Greece because it allowed everyone to express their feelings and when someone writes a story, they think about what is going to happen in that story. Greek ideas spread to non-Greek places near southwest Asia. This was mace possible by Alexander The Great because he extended Greek art, ideas, language, and architecture wherever they went in southwest Asia and northern Africa. Therefore, Greek ideas spread to non-Greek places.

Challenge

The 5 styles of art impact us today because we use them to get money, entertain people, and to publish books. We use ideas stuck inside our heads to write and publish books and create epics, fables, dramas, tragedies, or comedy. People can get money by having their own show when they are doing comedy. We entertain people and bring smiles on their faces by doing plays based on one of theses styles of art!

Organized Government

There are many different types of government in Greece and some of them include direct democracy, representative democracy, tyranny, and oligarchy. Direct democracy is when everyone tales a part in the government. Representative democracy is when the citizens get to choose who they want to lead them. Tyranny is when one person rules and has power and full authority over the people. An oligarchy is when there are a few people (group) in power. The advantages and disadvantages of these forms of government could be tragic. The advantages of a direct and representative democracy could be that everyone has a choice, most ideas shared all ideas have have potential equality. The disadvantages could be that Some unhappy (minority), majority rule, most arguing because everyone is taking part, and more time to hear all opinions. The advantages of tyranny are that if the person leading tyranny is good, he or she could make a huge difference and their in charge so people have to listen to them. It would be easier for someone to tell you what to do everyday: Easy to make a decision. The disadvantages though, are that not everyone would be involved and the people would start attacking if they didn’t like a choice the ruler made. The advantages of an oligarchy are that there would be more ideas, more input to make decisions, an opportunity to discuss ideas, and there would be less arguing. The disadvantages though, are that the rulers might get into a fight or disagree. The rulers also could be unwise and may want to cause more harm than good. Examples of these forms of government can be found today too. Today, in Switzerland we can find a direct democracy. Today, in the U.S.A also, we use a representative democracy to run our country. There used to be tyrants in Ancient Greece which is a good example of tyranny. Spartans had an oligarchy before they switched to a democracy.

Challenge

I think that democracy is the best type of government even though there is more arguments in democracy but still everyone get's to get a say and that makes it better because all the people get equal rights, get treated equally, and get to vote.

Religion

Myths are indeed traditional stories about gods and heroes, but they are based on religious beliefs and rituals. The Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses. They believed gods and goddesses made people's lives and affected them. This is why the best building's made in Greece, were temples. The Greeks believed that the gods and goddesses controlled life and nature. According to Greek myth, the god Zeus ruled the sky and threw lightning bolts, the goddess Demeter made the crops grow, and the god Poseidon caused earthquakes. The 12 most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, the highest and biggest mountain in Greece. Among the 12 were Zeus, who was the chief god, Athena, the goddess of wisdom and crafts, Apollo, the god of the sun and poetry, Ares, the god of war, Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and Poseidon, the god of the seas and controller of earthquakes. The Greeks also believed in the afterlife. When people passed away, Greeks believe their spirit went down into a frightening world under the Earth ruled by the god named Hades. Even after all this, the Greeks still believed the gods and goddesses weren't all powerful. According to the Greek myth, the gods and goddesses cold control life an nature, but they lived and looked like humans. They married, had children, played tricks on each other and even waged wars. A ritual is a number of actions that people do for a specific purpose. the Greeks followed their rituals by praying to their gods and also giving them gifts. In return, they hoped that the gods would grant good luck to them. Many Greek festivals honored the gods and goddesses. Festivals dedicated to Zeus were held at Olympia. To find out about the future, many Greeks visited an oracle. An oracle is a shrine where priests and priestess would speak to the gods and goddesses.

Challenge

The role of the Olympian god "Apollo" was that he was the god of of music, the god of healing, the god of light, and the god of truth. Apollo's most important daily tasks were to tackle his four-horse chariot, so he could get the sun to move across the sky. The role of the Olympian goddess, Artemis, was that she was the goddess of self-denial, virginity, the hunt, the moon, and the natural environment. She was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin sister of Apollo. She was the protector of nature and the hunt, both wild and tame animals were under her protection and control. She also protected the culture of animals and helped to do animal herding.

Writing Systems

A sentence in Greek words!

In between 1100 B. to 750 B.C., trade grew slow and poverty took place. Therefore people didn't teach other people how to write or to do craft work. This made the Greeks to forget their language and they also forgot how to make crafts. This is why this time was called the Dark Age because everything was shut down. There are 24 letters in the alphabet for the Ancient Greeks and is based off of the Phoenician alphabet that made different types of sounds. The alphabet made reading and writing much easier for the Greeks to handle. Soon after this, people had the idea of writing down tales that were passed down by tellers.

Challenge

The Greek writing system did not have much of an impact on us as much as cuneiform or hieroglyphics because the Phoenician alphabet is based off of the Canaanite language which is closely related to Hebrew. There is very little information about the Canaanite language. It also appears that the Phoenician alphabet was brought up or influenced by Egypt which king Rib-Ada from Byblos admitted to a pharaoh. This shows that people already knew about the Egyptian writing system so when the Phoenician alphabet cam along, no one had to pay attention to it. Before 1000 B.C. the Phoenician was written using cuneiform symbols which was already common in Mesopotamia. This shows that people already knew where cuneiform came from and no one paid attention to Phoenician because it was copying off of Mesopotamia.

Credits:

Created with images by symvol - "london the british museum ancient greece" • Sangre-La.com - "ig1222.JPG" • Mitaukano - "lion art greek"

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