Seismic Waves By: Taylor Lee

Seismic Wave: a wave of energy created by rock breaking apart. These are the waves we get during earthquakes.
There are 2 types of seismic waves, body and surface waves. Body waves travel through the earth, arrive before surface waves, and have a higher frequency than surface waves.
Surface waves travel through the crust of the earth. They are the waves responsible for damage by earthquakes.
There are two types of body waves. Primary, or P waves, and Secondary, or S waves. P waves arrive before S waves and are smaller with lower frequency.
P waves are longitudinal waves. They move in the same direction of the energy. They travel at a speed of 1.6-8 km/s and have frequencies of 0.1-2 Hz. Below is a diagram of a longitudinal wave.
S waves are transverse waves. They move blank. Below is a diagram of a transverse wave.
Surface waves also have two types of waves. Love waves, named after Augustus Edward Hough Love, and Rayleigh waves, named after Lord Rayleigh. Love waves are slightly faster than Rayleigh waves.
Love waves are transverse waves that are also horizontal. They appear to have a more side to side direction compared to up and down. They travel at speeds of 2.0-4.5 km/s. Below is a diagram of a transverse and horizontal wave.
Rayleigh waves are more of a rolling wave. They travel at speeds of 2.0-4.5 km/s, although they usual travel at speeds slower than Love waves. Below is a diagram of seismic waves that roll.
P waves can travel through air. The waves travel at the speed of sound, so at 340 m/s. The waves speed up in the different median. This is an example of refraction.
Body waves travel through rock. Depending on the type of rock, the waves either reflect or transmit.
S waves cannot travel through liquids, neither can Love waves. P waves become pressure waves, they then move at slower speeds. P waves refracted in liquids and S and Love waves are absorbed.
We use seismic waves to plot out the layers of the earth. Scientist also use seismic waves to plot earthquakes starting point. They use a seismograph to read waves and help predict earthquakes.
Although we can't see the waves, we can see the destruction they cause.
Thanks for reading!
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