THE RACE FOR WATER RESOURCES IN A TIME OF WORLDWIDE WATER SCARCITY By Lulu Anderson

QUICK FACTS ABOUT WATER WORLDWIDE!

Water Worldwide

1.8 billion people lack access to safe drinking water worldwide

Around 700,000 children each year die from diseases to do with unsafe drinking water, hygiene and sanitation

Women spend around 5 hours walking for water every day

Access to clean water and proper sanitation is a basic human right but 1.8 billion people still lack access to safe water

Australia's Water Resources

Water in Australia
An Australian drinking a glass of water

FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIA:

24 million people populate Australia.

In Australia, water supply is of good quality except it is also extremely vulnerable because there are the threats of droughts.

Australia’s main water supply comes from reservoirs, dams.

Our water resources are not evenly distributed amongst Australia.

Australia has the third highest per capita use of water in the world because it is a very dry continent.

Australia also has the world’s highest water storage capacity per capita.

The water supply in Sydney comes from Warragamba Dam which is about 65 km west of Sydney.

Warragamba Dam is Australia’s largest urban water supply dam.

The dam supplies water to around 3.7 million people living in Sydney and the Blue Mountains.

The Australian Flag

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER, IN AUSTRALIA

At a very high level as around 100% of Australian have access to clean and safe drinking water.

In Australia, the water is filtered (to a high standards) to ensure the water is safe to drink, straight from the tap.

Water is accessible to Australians through taps, bubblers, water bottles ect. where all the water is filtered thoroughly.

WATER RIGHTS, IN AUSTRALIA

Access to and use of water is governed by water rights administered by State and Territory government

There are many water access rights including water access entitlements, water allocations, riparian rights and stock and domestic rights

The Water Management Act 2000, says that there are three basic types of water landholder types in Australia and they include:

1. Domestic and stock rights - people who are owners of land which overlaps with water can take water, without needing a licence for household purposes or to water stock.

2. Native title rights - anyone who holds a native title can use water for personal, domestic and non-commercial purposes.

3. Harvestable rights - people in rural areas can collect water from runoff to store or use for farm dams.

Zimbabwe's Water Resources

Water in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwean women carrying buckets of water to their families

FACTS ABOUT ZIMBABWE:

14.15 million people populate Zimbabwe.

The waterfalls in Zimbabwe is called Victoria Falls.

Most residents in Zimbabwe have very little access to water and sanitation services.

Some people often resort to drinking water from shallow, unprotected wells which are contaminated by sewage.

The water conditions violate Zimbabwe’s right to water, sanitation and health.

Millions of residents are at risk of waterborne diseases.

Health risks related to waterborne diseases are increasing.

Zimbabwe’s major dams in all catchment areas are running dry and low.

In Zimbabwe, there has been a delay in rainfall which is resulting in dams and boreholes running dry.

The water table has gone down to below 100 metres instead of the expected 80 metres.

The drying of the country's water sources has been caused by the El Nino induced drought.

The poor weather conditions including erratic rainfall and long dry spells last season caused a large-scale crop failure and livestock deaths across the country, leaving over 4 million residents in need of dire food aid.

The country has 152 water catchment areas which are depleting.

Water has become scarcer within households and they are being forced to rely on unprotected sources.

The Zimbabwean Flag

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER, IN ZIMBABWE

Only 80% of Zimbabweans have access to improved drinking water sources.

Only 40% of Zimbabweans have access to improved sanitation facilities.

Access to safe and clean drinking water is a basic human right, which is also essential for having gender equality and a decrease in poverty.

UNICEF’s WASH program aims to improve equitable use of safe drinking water.

Access to improved water supply and sanitation is a lot less in rural area than in urban areas.

Often girls everyday have to walk around 4 km just to get water, then carry it back on their head (which can be around 20 litres).

The highest cause of disease in Zimbabwe was from contaminated or lack of water.

There is a shortage of water facilities and portable clean water in most communities.

Between 50 – 100 litres of water per person are needed to ensure basic needs are met and health risks are kept at a minimum.

Many people get their water from bore holes, dams and protected and unprotected wells.

WATER RIGHTS, IN ZIMBABWE

The right for water has been recognised in a wide range of international treaties, declarations and multiple constitutions.

The constitution of Zimbabwe says that “Every person has the right to safe, clean and potable water…”

The right to water in Zimbabwe contains both freedom and entitlements – the freedoms include access to water supplies which are necessary for the right to water and the entitlements includes the right to a system of water supply and management.

More people in Zimbabwe were applying for water rights but the existing legislation was not sufficiently flexible for more people.

The Water Act looks after and tracks the use of water in Zimbabwe.

All the water rights were issued in Harare by the Water Court.

Created By
Lulu Anderson
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