The Seven Roles of the President:
chief of state - The President represents the U.S. at official functions like meeting with the leaders of foreign nations.
chief executive - The President oversees federal agencies, appoints directors and creates policies to determine their goals during their term. They also appoint federal judges and Supreme Court Justices.
chief administrator - the President is in charge of the executive branch of the federal government.
chief diplomat - The President oversees treaties (agreements) with other countries. Presidents also direct aid to other countries, and set policies that affect U.S. relations with other nations.
commander in chief - The Constitution makes the President head of the U.S. military. Presidents may send troops into action, but only Congress can declare war.
chief legislator - Congress is responsible for passing laws, but Presidents must approve or veto (reject) those laws.
party chief - As head of his political party, a President can help members of his party run for office, and help the party raise money for campaigns. He can also appoint party members to important positions.
chief citizen - This means the President should represent all of the people of the United States
The Powers of the President:
1. Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces.
2. Commission officers of the armed forces.
3. Grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses (except impeachment)
4. Convene Congress in special sessions.
5. Receive ambassadors.
Three Formal Qualifications to be President:
- 14 yrs resident
- 35 yrs old
- Natural Born Citizen
Four Informal Qualifications to be President:
- Good speaker
- Be able to raise money
- Experienced in govt
- Mentally stable
The Presidents Salary and Compensation:
- $400,000 salary
- $50,000 expense coverage
The White House
- 412 doors, 147 windows, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators
- Known as the "President's Palace," the "President's House," and the "Executive Mansion."
- Able to serve dinner to as many as 140 guests and hors d'oeuvres to more than 1,000.
- There is a pool, basketball and tennis court, a bowling alley,
- Built in 1792
- Burnt down in the war of 1812 and rebuilt in 1815
Line of Succession
- The Vice President Joseph Biden
- Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
- President pro tempore of the Senate1 Patrick Leahy
- Secretary of State John Kerry
- Secretary of the Treasury Jacob Lew
- Secretary of Defense Ashton B. Carter
- Attorney General Loretta Lynch
- Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewel
- Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack
- Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker
- Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez
- Secretary of Health and Human Services Sylvia Mathews Burwell
- Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Julián Castro
- Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx
- Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz
- Secretary of Education Arne Duncan
- Secretary of Veterans Affairs Robert McDonald
- Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson
Presidential Succession Act of 1947
- On July 18, 1947, President Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act. The original act of 1792 had placed the Senate president pro tempore and Speaker of the House in the line of succession, but in 1886 Congress had removed them. The 1947 law reinserted those officials, but placed the Speaker ahead of the president pro tempore
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. He can also be impeached by the Senate for not faithfully fulfilling his duties.
VP Formal Duties
- to preside over the Senate and to cast tie-breaking votes there
- to preside over and certify the official vote count of the United States
- The Constitution gives the vice president the role of presiding over the Senate, and voting in the Senate if there is a tie. The vice president's only other formal responsibility is taking over the presidency if the president dies.
The Difference Between the Presidential Primary and General Election
The United States holds two very different kinds of elections: primary and general. Both are important in determining the will of the people. This process finds out who the people want to run for each party, and then which party's candidate they choose over the other party's candidate. The primary election is the party nomination part of the election and the general election is the vote for the office-holder.
- Delegates are people are authorized to represent others.
- Delegates represent as much people who voted.
- Democrats use proportional - awarded a number of delegates in proportion to their support in the state
- Republicans use winner-take-all - who ever gets the most votes takes the state
- The electoral college is how the public elects the next president
- 538 Electors
- Each state gets electors based on how many congressmen (based on state population) they have
- A candidate needs 270 votes to win
- They meet 6 weeks after election day
- The electoral votes are counted when they meet 6 weeks after the public election
- Rules - electors can't vote only vote for the candidate from their state, electors can't have previously been in the congress
- Electors are selected for each candidate based on the popular vote in November
- If there is a tie then the decision goes to the House and Senate.
- The electors have precedence over the popular vote because the popular vote is for the people to choose who they want to represent them in the Presidential election. This means that the only the electors' votes count for anything.
Pros and Cons of the Electoral College
- Pros - Minority interests are protected and it directs more power to the states.
- Cons - It is complex, swing/small states have more power, and there are a majority of Americans whose candidate won't win.
- Methods of reform: Direct Election by the people, Proportional Allocation of Electoral Votes where instead of scrapping the 2nd place candidate's votes they include them in their total count, Congressional district voting, and the national bonus plan where the electoral system is retained but bonus electoral votes are given to the popular vote winner.
The Power of the President
- The powers of the President has increased overtime to compensate for security threats but they have also grown organically overtime due to America's growth in general.
An executive order is a rule or order issued by the president to an executive branch of the government and having the force of law. An example would be that sometimes congress or states would be hesitant to enforce a law that may be controversial. If they are the president can then step in and enforce the law through executive order.
An executive agreement is an international agreement, usually regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty, made by the executive branch of the us government without ratification by the senate. An example would be NAFTA which was negotiated by the president and then submitted to congress for approval.
War Powers Act
The war powers act is a federal law intended to check the president’s power to commit the USA to an armed conflict without consent of the U.S. congress.
Item Line Veto
The line-item veto, or partial veto, is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without vetoing the entire bill.