The media and entertainment industry consists of four sections: print, radio, television and film.
The film industry includes large, multinational corporations, major studios, and independent studios. The film industry is a profitable entertainment sector as it creates visual narratives that entertain and inspire the audience.
People enjoy movies because for two and half hours they are compelled to an interesting story based on someone else's life. By being in a dark theater they do not have to worry about folding clothes, or answering e-mails (Talbot, 2012).
The Lumière Brothers from France are credited with creating some of the earliest movie shorts with a collection of 15-30 second scenarios in the 1890s. A collection of these short scenes include a train arriving at a station, a man watering his garden, men playing cards, and people getting off of a ferry boat (baldasty, 2013).
After hearing about this wonderful place, many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison in 1913. Edison owned patents on the movie-making process since he created the kinetoscope, which is the device that originally captured the moving picture motion. The momentum in Los Angeles grew as more the studios relocated because filmmakers were drawn to Hollywood with its mild climate and reliable sunlight. This made it possible to film movies outdoors all year-round, along with the varied scenery available there (Film industry, 2013).
Early films had not named the actors for fear of creating stars which would have caused them to request higher salaries. However as Hollywood grew in the period after 1912, the industry came to rely on them in order to make audiences return to their new movies (Baldasty, 2013).
The momentum of the films being produced started to increase by end of the silent era in the late 1920s to near the end of the 1940s. A variety of genres were developed and ranged from Western, slapstick comedy, film noir, musical, animated cartoon, biopics, and newsreels (Film industry, 2013).
The motion picture theater industry in the first half of the twentieth century was dominated by a handful of companies known as "the five majors": Paramount, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros., MGM, and RKO Pictures. They had the power to produced, distributed, and exhibited films in company-owned theaters, especially after gaining even more control during the Great Depression. Companies such as Columbia, Universal Pictures, and United Artists Corporation were smaller and focused mainly on distribution (Motion Picture Theaters, Except Drive-In, 2014).
The top five production companies took over during the Great Depression. Movies were an outlet to escape the harsh reality of the Great Depression creating a diversion (Motion Picture Theaters, Except Drive-In, 2014).
Popular movies at the time: The Birth of a Nation, The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, Stagecoach, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Only Angels Have Wings, Ninotchka, and Midnight. Among the other films in the Golden Age period that remain classics to the present day: Casablanca, It's a Wonderful Life, the original King Kong, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (Film industry, 2013).
Technological innovations and new distribution channels have opened up new opportunities in this sector. Investing in technological innovation is important in enhancing the audience experience. Technology’s greatest impact in this field is new cameras that allow cinematographer to shoot in a high definition thus allowing viewers to see the amazing work in set design. Technology enhances new possibilities for the production of movies. Modern technology advances production of movies that were not possible before, such as Avatar, Gravity, and Pixar movies.
Advertising, Public Relations, and Events
The major modes of marketing in the film industry focus dominantly on advertising, public relations, and events (Ashe-Edmunds). Film studios have begun to follow a 50/50 rule when it comes to spending for the production and the media expenditures (Reiss, 2010). If production costs $100,000 it is safe to assume that media expenditures will be $100,000 as well.
Advertising is extremely important for the film industry because it is the primary communication method used. Advertising is very expensive when trying to obtain “successful promotion through preparation, planned implementation, and anticipation for crises or unexpected responses,” which is the primary goal for most film studios (Cheng, 2014).
Examples of advertising methods used are:
- Promotion of new movies through trailers on TV and online
- Movie posters on billboards
- Advertisements on public transportation
- Print ads in magazines
Figure 1 and Figure 2 give interesting conclusions for the Film Industry. When it comes to advertising movies, whether it is a trailer or just a basic ad, it is best to advertise using mobile advertisement placements because the statistics show people from 18 to 44 are way more likely to access the internet through their phone. The film industry should consider making movies more readily available for viewers because the majority of the millennial generation are watching movies on their computers or tablets because of convenience.