With the Gold Rush of the 19th century eclipsed, San Francisco entered the 20th century with high hopes of growth and prosperity, only to see them dashed by a natural disaster of biblical proportions in 1906. The Great Earthquake and Fire that followed sent the “Golden City” reeling into a decade-long rebuilding process. Those production facilities that were not directly affected by the catastrophe both contributed to and profited from the restitution of San Francisco's rebound.

The city’s major industries included iron production factories like the Union Iron Works.

San Francisco was also home to a variety of mass manufacturing that supported confectioneries such as sugar, syrup, and flour manufacture, as well as canneries. One such prominent and successful factory was Spreckel’s Sugar refinery.

Marmarinian kinship networks encouraged the emergence of this enclave which was connected to Constantinople, New York, Los Angeles, Portland, and Seattle.

From The Marble Island to The Golden City, the Marmarinians, among other groups to immigrate to San Francisco, banded together in their own enclave. In this video, we meet a group of descendants of Ottoman Greek immigrants from the island and environs of Marmara on the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara. After violent expulsions, disease-ridden refugee camps, and long cross-country journeys, their parents found each other in the San Francisco Bay area. Their families grew up together and are life-long friends—with families ties that endure into the third generation